no longer the treasure-chamber of all knowledge; for
in natural and historical science we have advanced greatly beyond it.
Oppression by the church has been stopped. A _pure_ knowledge of
antiquity is now possible, but perhaps also a more ineffective and
weaker knowledge.--This is right enough, if effect is known only as
effect on the masses; but for the breeding of higher minds antiquity is
more powerful than ever.
Goethe as a German poet-philologist; Wagner as a still higher stage: his
clear glance for the only worthy position of art. No ancient work has
ever had so powerful an effect as the "Orestes" had on Wagner. The
objective, emasculated philologist, who is but a philistine of culture
and a worker in "pure science," is, however, a sad spectacle.
Between our highest art and philosophy and that which is recognised to
be truly the oldest antiquity, there is no contradiction: they support
and harmonise with one another. It is in this that I place my hopes.
The main standpoints from which to consider the importance of antiquity:
1. There is nothing about it for young people, for it exhibits man with
an entire freedom from shame.
2. It is not for direct imitation, but it teaches by which means art has
hitherto been perfected in the highest degree.
3. It is accessible only to a few, and there should be a _police des
moeurs,_ in charge of it--as there should be also in charge of bad
pianists who play Beethoven.
4. These few apply this antiquity to the judgment of our own time, as
critics of it; and they judge antiquity by their own ideals and are thus
critics of antiquity.
5. The contract between the Hellenic and the Roman should be studied,
and also the contrast between the early Hellenic and the late
Hellenic.--Explanation of the different types of culture.
The advancement of science at the expense of man is one of the most
pernicious things in the world. The stunted man is a retrogression in
the human race: he throws a shadow over all succeeding generations The
tendencies and natural purpose of the individual science become
degenerate, and science itself is finally shipwrecked: it has made
progress, but has either no effect at all on life or else an immoral
Men not to be used like things!
From the former very incomplete philology and knowledge of antiquity
there flowed out a stream of freedom, while our own highly developed
knowledge produces slaves and serves the idol of the State.
There will perhaps come a time when scientific work will be carried on
by women, while the men will have
that at last, perhaps very late in the day, we may be able to do something more: feel anew.Page 9
Philology itself, perhaps, will not "get things done" so hurriedly: it teaches how to read _well_: _i.Page 14
Do ye understand why this had to be done through insanity? by something which is in both voice and appearance as horrifying and incalculable as the demoniac whims of wind and sea, and consequently calling for like dread and respect? by something bearing upon it the signs of entire lack of consciousness as clearly as the convulsions and foam of the epileptic, which appeared to typify the insane person as the mask and speaking-trumpet of some divine being? by something that inspired even the bearer of the new thought with awe and fear of himself, and that, suppressing all remorse, drove him on to become its prophet and martyr?--Well, in our own time, we continually hear the statement reiterated that genius is tinctured with madness instead of good sense.Page 18
--Custom represents the experiences of men of earlier times in regard to what they considered as useful and harmful; but the _feeling of custom_ (morality) does not relate to these feelings as such, but to the age, the sanctity, and the unquestioned authority of the custom.Page 25
We are not taught to avoid the real consequences of dirt, but merely the supposed displeasure of the gods because a bath has been omitted.Page 30
ORIGIN OF THE _VITA CONTEMPLATIVA_.Page 48
But now all is over.Page 55
bore a few slight traces of immorality; and he felt too much ashamed and afraid of acknowledging this to himself: consequently, like a man who is afraid, he spoke as loudly as he could.Page 64
We do our duty, _i.Page 97
PERHAPS PREMATURE.Page 110
We are deceived by words and ideas which appear to resemble our own, but behind them there is always concealed a feeling which must be strange, incomprehensible, or painful to our modern conceptions.Page 140
--These silent, gloomy, and evil men possess a peculiar something which you cannot.Page 173
MAN AND THINGS.Page 175
--We give some one at length our dearest and most valued possession, and then love has nothing more to give: but the recipient of the gift will certainly not consider it as his dearest possession, and will consequently be wanting in that full and complete gratitude which we expect from him.Page 180
MORTAL SOULS.Page 204
At that time the Greek palate still possessed that older and formerly omnipotent taste: and by the side of this taste their new taste appeared to be enveloped in so much charm that the divine art of dialectic was sung by hesitating voices as if its followers were intoxicated with the frenzy of love.