are not deceived. But they play round life with lies:
Simonides advises them to treat life as they would a play; earnestness
was only too well known to them in the form of pain. The misery of men
is a pleasure to the gods when they hear the poets singing of it. Well
did the Greeks know that only through art could even misery itself
become a source of pleasure, _vide tragoediam_.
It is quite untrue to say that the Greeks only took _this_ life into
their consideration--they suffered also from thoughts of death and Hell.
But no "repentance" or contrition.
The incarnate appearance of gods, as in Sappho's invocation to
Aphrodite, must not be taken as poetic licence . they are frequently
hallucinations. We conceive of a great many things, including the will
to die, too superficially as rhetorical.
The "martyr" is Hellenic: Prometheus, Hercules. The hero-myth became
pan-Hellenic: a poet must have had a hand in that!
How _realistic_ the Greeks were even in the domain of pure inventions!
They poetised reality, not yearning to lift themselves out of it. The
raising of the present into the colossal and eternal, _e.g._, by Pindar.
What condition do the Greeks premise as the model of their life in
Hades? Anaemic, dreamlike, weak . it is the continuous accentuation of
old age, when the memory gradually becomes weaker and weaker, and the
body still more so. The senility of senility . this would be our state
of life in the eyes of the Hellenes.
The naive character of the Greeks observed by the Egyptians.
The truly scientific people, the literary people, were the Egyptians and
not the Greeks. That which has the appearance of science among the
Greeks, originated among the Egyptians and later on returned to them to
mingle again with the old current. Alexandrian culture is an
amalgamation of Hellenic and Egyptian . and when our world again founds
its culture upon the Alexandrian culture, then....
The Egyptians are far more of a literary people than the Greeks. I
maintain this against Wolf. The first grain in Eleusis, the first vine
in Thebes, the first olive-tree and fig-tree. The Egyptians had lost a
great part of their mythology.
The unmathematical undulation of the column in Paestum is analogous to
the modification of the _tempo_: animation in place of a mechanical
The desire to find something certain and fixed in aesthetic led to the
worship of Aristotle: I think, however, that we may gradually come to
see from his works that he understood nothing about art, and that it is
merely the intellectual conversations of the Athenians, echoing in
"GOOD AND EVIL," "GOOD AND BAD.Page 18
The "well-born" simply _felt_ themselves the "happy"; they did not have to manufacture their happiness artificially through looking at their enemies, or in cases to talk and _lie themselves_ into happiness (as is the custom with all resentful men); and similarly, complete men as they were, exuberant with strength, and consequently _necessarily_ energetic, they were too wise to dissociate happiness from action--activity becomes in their minds necessarily counted as happiness (that is the etymology of Îµá½ ÏÏá¼ÏÏÎµÎ¹Î½)--all in sharp contrast to the "happiness" of the weak and the oppressed, with their festering venom and malignity, among whom happiness appears essentially as a narcotic, a deadening, a quietude, a peace, a "Sabbath," an enervation of the mind and relaxation of the limbs,--in short, a purely _passive_ phenomenon.Page 20
This particular point we would be the last to deny: the man who learnt to know those "good" ones only as enemies, learnt at the same time not to know them only as "_evil enemies_" and the same men who _inter pares_ were kept so rigorously in bounds through convention, respect, custom, and gratitude, though much more through mutual vigilance and jealousy _inter pares_, these men who in their relations with each other find so many new ways of manifesting consideration, self-control, delicacy, loyalty, pride, and friendship, these men are in reference to what is outside their circle (where the foreign element, a _foreign_ country, begins), not much better than beasts of prey, which have been let loose.Page 26
Bad air! Bad air! These workshops _where ideals are manufactured_--verily they reek with the crassest lies.Page 36
Have these current genealogists of morals ever allowed themselves to have even the vaguest notion, for instance, that the cardinal moral idea of "ought" originates from the very material idea of "owe"? Or that punishment developed as a retaliation absolutely independently of any preliminary hypothesis of the freedom or determination of the will?--And this to such an extent, that a high degree of civilisation was always first necessary for the animal man to begin to make those much more primitive distinctions of "intentional," "negligent," "accidental," "responsible," and their contraries, and apply them in the assessing of punishment.Page 40
Pain has _not_ the same effect with negroes.Page 46
On the other hand, we already surmise who it really is that has on his conscience the invention of the "bad conscience,"--the resentful man! Finally, let man look at himself in history.Page 53
Progress towards universal empires invariably means progress towards universal deities; despotism, with its subjugation of the independent nobility, always paves the way for some system or other of monotheism.Page 79
I have put it forward in the _Dawn of Day_, Aph.Page 83
It will, for instance, after the example of the ascetics of the Vedanta Philosophy, reduce matter to an illusion, and similarly treat pain, multiplicity, the whole logical contrast of "_Subject_" and "_Object_"--errors, nothing but errors! To renounce the belief in one's own ego, to deny to one's self one's own "reality"--what a triumph! and here already we have a much higher kind of triumph, which is not merely a triumph over the senses, over the palpable, but an infliction of violence and cruelty on _reason_; and this ecstasy culminates in the ascetic self-contempt, the ascetic scorn of one's own reason making this decree: _there is_ a domain of truth and of life, but reason is specially _excluded_ therefrom.Page 87
" Right into the hallowed chambers of knowledge can it make itself heard, can this hoarse yelping of sick hounds, this rabid lying and frenzy of such "noble" Pharisees (I remind readers, who have ears, once more of that Berlin apostle of revenge, Eugen DÃ¼hring, who makes the most disreputable and revolting use in all present-day Germany of moral refuse; DÃ¼hring, the paramount moral blusterer that there is to-day, even among his own kidney, the Anti-Semites).Page 88
Away with this "perverse world"! Away with this shameful soddenness of sentiment! Preventing the sick making the healthy sick--for that is what such a soddenness comes to--this ought to be our supreme object in the world--but for this it is above all essential that the healthy should remain _separated_ from the sick, that they should even guard themselves from the look of the sick, that they should not even associate with the sick.Page 94
servility, for German pusillanimity).Page 95
gratitude that rings in the very _will_ for an explanation of such a character.Page 99
The dishonest lie alone suits them: everything which feels a good man is perfectly incapable of any other attitude to anything than that of a dishonourable liar, an absolute liar, but none the less an innocent liar, a blue-eyed liar, a virtuous liar.Page 103
What was always the "result"? A shattered nervous system, in addition to the existing malady, and this in the greatest as in the smallest, in the individuals as in masses.Page 109
Book V.Page 113
Or, perchance, does the whole of modern history show in its demeanour greater confidence in life, greater confidence in its ideals? Its loftiest pretension is now to be a _mirror_; it repudiates all teleology; it will have no more "proving"; it disdains to play the judge, and thereby shows its good tasteââit asserts as little as it denies, it fixes, it "describes.Page 120
The man whose soul obeys the slavish command: "Thou shalt and must kneel!" in whose body there is an involuntary bowing and scraping to titles, orders, gracious glances from above--well, such a man in an "Empire" will only bow all the more deeply and lick the dust more fervently in the presence of the greater sovereign than in the presence of the lesser: this cannot be doubted.