young students known to the ancients: what is worse, it is
unpedagogical; or what can result from a mere acquaintance with things
which a youth cannot consciously esteem! Perhaps he must learn to
"_believe_" and this is why I object to it.
There are matters regarding which antiquity instructs us, and about
which I should hardly care to express myself publicly.
All the difficulties of historical study to be elucidated by great
Why our young students are not suited to the Greeks.
The consequences of philology.
Too high an esteem for reading and writing.
Estrangement from the nation and its needs.
The philologists themselves, the historians, philosophers, and jurists
all end in smoke.
Our young students should be brought into contact with real sciences.
Likewise with real art.
In consequence, when they grew older, a desire for _real_ history would
Inhumanity: even in the "Antigone," even in Goethe's "Iphigenia."
The want of "rationalism" in the Greeks.
Young people cannot understand the political affairs of antiquity.
The poetic element: a bad expectation.
Do the philologists know the present time? Their judgments on it as
Periclean, their mistaken judgments when they speak of Freytag's
genius as resembling that of Homer, and so on; their following in the
lead of the litterateurs, their abandonment of the pagan sense, which
was exactly the classical element that Goethe discovered in Winckelmann.
The condition of the philologists may be seen by their indifference at
the appearance of Wagner. They should have learnt even more through him
than through Goethe, and they did not even glance in his direction. That
shows that they are not actuated by any strong need, or else they would
have an instinct to tell them where their food was to be found.
Wagner prizes his art too highly to go and sit in a corner with it, like
Schumann. He either surrenders himself to the public ("Rienzi") or he
makes the public surrender itself to him. He educates it up to his
music. Minor artists, too, want their public, but they try to get it by
inartistic means, such as through the Press, Hanslick, &c.
Wagner perfected the inner fancy of man . later generations will see a
renaissance in sculpture. Poetry must precede the plastic art.
I observe in philologists .
1. Want of respect for antiquity.
2. Tenderness and flowery oratory; even an apologetic tone.
3. Simplicity in their historical comments.
5. Under-estimation of the talented philologists.
Philologists appear to me to be
quite the old style of comfortable country parson, who thought it no sin to go hunting.Page 2
When, however, Stanislas Leszcysski the Pole became king, our supposed ancestor became involved in a conspiracy in favour of the Saxons and Protestants.Page 3
was laid up with concussion of the brain, and, after a lingering illness, which lasted eleven months, he died on the 30th of July 1849.Page 7
When we examine his record for the years 1865-67, we can scarcely believe it refers to only two years' industry, for at a guess no one would hesitate to suggest four years at least.Page 8
But no one has any idea of my brother's independent attitude to the science he had selected, to his teachers and to his ideals, and he deceived both himself and us when he passed as a "disciple" who really shared all the views of his respected master.Page 13
Indeed, the entire book recognises only an artist-thought and artist-after-thought behind all occurrences,--a "God," if you will, but certainly only an altogether thoughtless and unmoral artist-God, who, in construction as in destruction, in good as in evil, desires to become conscious of his own equable joy and sovereign glory; who, in creating worlds, frees himself from the _anguish_ of fullness and _overfullness,_ from the _suffering_ of the contradictions concentrated within him.Page 24
But also that delicate line, which the dream-picture must not overstep--lest it act pathologically (in which case appearance, being reality pure and simple, would impose upon us)--must not be wanting in the picture of Apollo: that measured limitation, that freedom from the wilder emotions, that philosophical calmness of the sculptor-god.Page 30
Now the Olympian magic mountain opens, as it were, to our view and shows to us its roots.Page 31
So vehemently does the "will," at the Apollonian stage of development, long for this existence, so completely at one does the Homeric man feel himself with it, that the very lamentation becomes its song of praise.Page 38
For this one thing must above all be clear to us, to our humiliation _and_ exaltation, that the.Page 55
But even this interpretation which Ãschylus has given to the myth does not fathom its astounding depth of terror; the fact is rather that the artist's delight in unfolding, the cheerfulness of artistic creating bidding defiance to all calamity, is but a shining stellar and nebular image reflected in a black sea of sadness.Page 69
So also the divine Plato speaks for the most part only ironically of the creative faculty of the poet, in so far as it is not conscious insight, and places it on a par with the gift of the soothsayer and dream-interpreter; insinuating that the poet is incapable of composing until he has become unconscious and reason has deserted him.Page 70
Sophocles was designated as the third in this scale of rank; he who could pride himself that, in comparison with Ãschylus, he did what was right, and did it, moreover, because he _knew_ what was right.Page 77
For then its disciples would have been obliged to feel like those who purposed to dig a hole straight through the earth: each one of whom perceives that with the utmost lifelong exertion he is able to excavate only a very little of the enormous depth, which is again filled up before his eyes by the labours of his successor, so that a third man seems to do well when on his own account he selects a new spot for his attempts at tunnelling.Page 89
The _deus ex machina_ took the place of metaphysical comfort.Page 96
" Here we must at once call attention to the common characteristic of these two conceptions in operatic genesis, namely, that in them the ideal is not regarded as unattained or nature as lost Agreeably to this sentiment, there was a primitive age of man when he lay close to the heart of nature, and, owing to this naturalness, had attained the ideal of mankind in a paradisiac goodness and artist-organisation: from which perfect primitive man all of us were supposed to be descended; whose faithful copy we were in fact still said to be: only we had to cast off some few things in order to recognise ourselves once more as this primitive man, on the strength of a voluntary renunciation of superfluous learnedness, of super-abundant culture.Page 102
There is not his equal.Page 115
Our opinion of the pure and vigorous kernel of the German being is such that we venture to expect of it, and only of it, this elimination of forcibly ingrafted foreign elements, and we deem it possible that the German spirit will reflect anew on itself.Page 120
I thought these problems through and through before the walls of Metz in cold September nights, in the midst of the work of nursing the sick; one might even believe the book to be fifty years older.