period of his life Nietzsche was convinced that
Christianity was the real danger to culture; and not merely modern
Christianity, but also the Alexandrian culture, the last gasp of Greek
antiquity, which had helped to bring Christianity about. When, in the
later aphorisms of "We Philologists," Nietzsche appears to be throwing
over the Greeks, it should be remembered that he does not refer to the
Greeks of the era of Homer or AEschylus, or even of Aristotle, but to the
much later Greeks of the era of Longinus.
Classical antiquity, however, was conveyed to the public through
university professors and their intellectual offspring, and these
professors, influenced (quite unconsciously, of course) by religious and
"liberal" principles, presented to their scholars a kind of emasculated
antiquity. It was only on these conditions that the State allowed the
pagan teaching to be propagated in the schools; and if, where classical
scholars were concerned, it was more tolerant than the Church had been,
it must be borne in mind that the Church had already done all the rough
work of emasculating its enemies, and had handed down to the State a
body of very innocuous and harmless investigators. A totally erroneous
conception of what constituted classical culture was thus brought about.
Where any distinction was actually made, for example, later Greek
thought was enormously over-rated, and early Greek thought equally
undervalued. Aphorism 44, together with the first half-dozen or so in
the book, may be taken as typical specimens of Nietzsche's protest
against this state of things.
It must be added, unfortunately, that Nietzsche's observations in this
book apply as much to England as to Germany. Classical teachers here may
not be rated so high as they are in Germany, but their influence would
appear to be equally powerful, and their theories of education and of
classical antiquity equally chaotic. In England as in Germany they are
"theologians in disguise." The danger of modern "values" to true culture
may be readily gathered from a perusal of aphorisms that follow: and, if
these aphorisms enable even one scholar in a hundred to enter more
thoroughly into the spirit of a great past they will not have been
penned in vain.
J. M. KENNEDY.
LONDON, _July 1911_.
To what a great extent men are ruled by pure hazard, and how little
reason itself enters into the question, is
), he declares that every one should be able to take leave of his circle of relatives and intimates when his time seems to have come--that is to say, while he is still _himself_ while he still knows what he is about, and is able to measure his own life and life in general, and speak of both in a manner which is not vouchsafed to the groaning invalid, to the man lying on his back, decrepit and exhausted, or to the moribund victim of some wasting disease.Page 20
I am too inquisitive, too incredulous, too high spirited, to be satisfied with such a palpably clumsy solution of things.Page 24
a very delicate and reliable instrument, and that I am able to calculate the change in degrees of atmospheric moisture by means of physiological observations upon myself, even on so short a journey as that from Turin to Milan; I think with horror of the ghastly fact that my whole life, until the last ten years,--the most perilous years,--has always been spent in the wrong, and what to me ought to have been the most forbidden, places.Page 26
After casting a glance between the pages of my _Zarathustra,_ I pace my room to and fro for half an hour at a time, unable to overcome an insufferable fit of tears.Page 29
If a man wish to get rid of a feeling of insufferable oppression, he has to take to hashish.Page 33
_ The latter was coined by Nietzsche.Page 41
No one has ever existed who has had more novel, more strange, and purposely created art forms to fling to the winds.Page 47
The whole panorama of the _dithyrambic_ artist is.Page 56
or following on my part, and any further misunderstanding of myself.Page 58
] [Footnote 4: _Human, all-too-Human,_ vol.Page 81
And with regard even to my _Zarathustra,_ which of my friends would have seen more in it than a piece of unwarrantable, though fortunately harmless, arrogance? Ten years have elapsed, and no one has yet felt it a duty to his conscience to defend my name against the absurd silence beneath which it has been entombed.Page 84
In order to appraise the value of a certain type of man, the cost of his maintenance must be calculated,--and the conditions of his existence must be known.Page 90
What though they did not soar unto thine height, or reached those far-off, cloud-reared precipices, For _that_ they sank the deeper so they might Within themselves light Destiny's abysses.Page 91
Bend, adore me! Worm of Earth and Will o' Wisp--or die!" HYMNS TO FRIENDSHIP (_Two Fragments_) 1 Goddess Friendship, deign to hear the song That we sing in friendship's honour! Where the eye of friendship glances, Filled with all the.Page 97
At the blue he gazes ever, Distance doth his soul enchain.Page 106
They are all venal.Page 113
35 Not through his sins and greatest follies.