Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 242

which Darwin and Nietzsche
will meet, is an interesting one. The former says in his "Origin of
Species", concerning the causes of variability: "...there are two
factors, namely, the nature of the organism, and the nature of the
conditions. THE FORMER SEEMS TO BE MUCH THE MORE IMPORTANT (The italics
are mine.), for nearly similar variations sometimes arise under, as
far as we can judge, dissimilar conditions; and on the other hand,
dissimilar variations arise under conditions which appear to be
nearly uniform." Nietzsche, recognising this same truth, would ascribe
practically all the importance to the "highest functionaries in the
organism, in which the life-will appears as an active and formative
principle," and except in certain cases (where passive organisms alone
are concerned) would not give such a prominent place to the influence
of environment. Adaptation, according to him, is merely a secondary
activity, a mere re-activity, and he is therefore quite opposed to
Spencer's definition: "Life is the continuous adjustment of internal
relations to external relations." Again in the motive force behind
animal and plant life, Nietzsche disagrees with Darwin. He
transforms the "Struggle for Existence"--the passive and involuntary
condition--into the "Struggle for Power," which is active and creative,
and much more in harmony with Darwin's own view, given above, concerning
the importance of the organism itself. The change is one of such
far-reaching importance that we cannot dispose of it in a breath, as a
mere play upon words. "Much is reckoned higher than life itself by the
living one." Nietzsche says that to speak of the activity of life as a
"struggle for existence," is to state the case inadequately. He warns us
not to confound Malthus with nature. There is something more than
this struggle between the organic beings on this earth; want, which is
supposed to bring this struggle about, is not so common as is supposed;
some other force must be operative. The Will to Power is this force,
"the instinct of self-preservation is only one of the indirect and most
frequent results thereof." A certain lack of acumen in psychological
questions and the condition of affairs in England at the time Darwin
wrote, may both, according to Nietzsche, have induced the renowned
naturalist to describe the forces of nature as he did in his "Origin of
Species".

In verses 28, 29, and 30 of the second portion of this discourse we meet
with a doctrine which, at first sight, seems to be merely "le manoir
a l'envers," indeed one English critic has actually said of Nietzsche,
that "Thus Spake Zarathustra" is no more than a compendium of modern
views and maxims turned upside

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Text Comparison with We Philologists Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Volume 8

Page 1
Where any distinction was actually made, for example, later Greek thought was enormously over-rated, and early Greek thought equally undervalued.
Page 7
Whoever wishes to serve the former must hate the latter.
Page 8
The greatest events in philology are the appearance of Goethe, Schopenhauer, and Wagner; standing on their shoulders we look far into the distance.
Page 10
" Now there are so many things to which men have become so accustomed that they look upon them as quite appropriate and suitable, for habit intermixes all things with sweetness; and men as a rule judge the value of a thing in accordance with their own desires.
Page 11
In the first place there is the prejudice expressed in the synonymous concept, "The study of the humanities": antiquity is classic because it is the school of the humane.
Page 12
But if this antiquity has been wrongly valued, then the whole foundation upon which the high position of the philologist is based suddenly collapses.
Page 14
people no longer feared it, but availed themselves of the culture that rested upon it.
Page 16
the philologists.
Page 17
educational system of a period is condemned, a heavy censure on philologists is thereby implied: either, as the consequence of their wrong-headed view, they insist on giving bad education in the belief that it is good; or they do not wish to give this bad education, but are unable to carry the day in favour of education which they recognise to be better.
Page 19
Bentley remained silent for some time as if he were turning the matter over in his mind.
Page 20
" 62 Says Wolf again .
Page 22
Likewise with real art.
Page 25
The ennoblement of jealousy: the Greeks the most jealous nation.
Page 27
The Greeks believed in a racial distinction.
Page 28
Even the poet does not.
Page 30
is, and then we are glad.
Page 32
critical consideration alone remains.
Page 33
158 To know history now means .
Page 34
In the end, all the forces of which antiquity consisted have reappeared in Christianity in the crudest possible form: it is nothing new, only quantitatively extraordinary.
Page 42
THE DEATH OF THE OLD CULTURE.