Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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"last scene of all
That ends this strange eventful history,
Is second childishness and mere oblivion,
Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans taste, sans everything."

Whether the dangers of our life and culture come from these dreary,
toothless old men, or from the so-called "men" of Hartmann, we have
the right to defend our youth with tooth and claw against both of
them, and never tire of saving the future from these false prophets.
But in this battle we shall discover an unpleasant truth--that men
intentionally help, and encourage, and use, the worst aberrations of
the historical sense from which the present time suffers.

They use it, however, against youth, in order to transform it into
that ripe "egoism of manhood" they so long for: they use it to
overcome the natural reluctance of the young by its magical
splendour, which unmans while it enlightens them. Yes, we know only
too well the kind of ascendency history can gain; how it can uproot
the strongest instincts of youth, passion, courage, unselfishness and
love; can cool its feeling for justice, can crush or repress its
desire for a slow ripening by the contrary desire to be soon
productive, ready and useful; and cast a sick doubt over all honesty
and downrightness of feeling. It can even cozen youth of its fairest
privilege, the power of planting a great thought with the fullest
confidence, and letting it grow of itself to a still greater thought.
An excess of history can do all that, as we have seen, by no longer
allowing a man to feel and act _unhistorically_: for history is
continually shifting his horizon and removing the atmosphere
surrounding him. From an infinite horizon he withdraws into himself,
back into the small egoistic circle, where he must become dry and
withered: he may possibly attain to cleverness, but never to wisdom.
He lets himself be talked over, is always calculating and parleying
with facts. He is never enthusiastic, but blinks his eyes, and
understands how to look for his own profit or his party's in the
profit or loss of somebody else. He unlearns all his useless modesty,
and turns little by little into the "man" or the "graybeard" of
Hartmann. And that is what they _want_ him to be: that is the meaning
of the present cynical demand for the "full surrender of the
personality to the world-process"--for the sake of his end, the
redemption of the world, as

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Text Comparison with The Joyful Wisdom Complete Works, Volume Ten

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The unconscious disguising of physiological requirements under the cloak of the objective, the ideal, the purely spiritual, is carried on to an alarming extent,--and I have often enough asked myself, whether on the whole philosophy hitherto has not generally been merely, an interpretation of the body, and a _misunderstanding of the body.
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Yet it is mostly of the belief that it has _not_ a singular standard of value in its idiosyncrasies of taste; it rather sets up its values and non-values as the generally valid values and non-values, and thus becomes incomprehensible and impracticable.
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--_What? The ultimate goal of science is to create the most pleasure possible to man, and the least possible pain? But what if pleasure and pain should be so closely connected that he who _wants_ the greatest possible amount of the one _must_ also have the greatest possible amount of the other,--that he who wants to experience the "heavenly high jubilation,"[1] must also be ready to be "sorrowful unto death"?[2] And it is so, perhaps! The Stoics at least believed it was so, and they were consistent when they wished to have the least possible pleasure, in order to have the least possible pain from life.
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The praise of the unselfish, self-sacrificing, virtuous person--he, consequently, who does not expend his whole energy and reason for _his own_ conservation, development, elevation, furtherance and augmentation of power, but lives as regards himself unassumingly and thoughtlessly, perhaps even indifferently or ironically--this praise has in any case not originated out of the spirit of unselfishness! The "neighbour" praises unselfishness because _he profits by it!_ If the neighbour were "unselfishly" disposed himself, he would reject that destruction of power, that injury for _his_ advantage, he would thwart such inclinations in their origin, and above all he would manifest his unselfishness just by _not giving it a good name!_ The fundamental contradiction in that morality which at present stands in high honour is here indicated: the _motives_ to such a morality are in antithesis to its _principle!_ That with which this morality wishes to prove itself, refutes it out of its criterion of what is moral! The.
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Let us learn that it is a symptom of _enlightenment.
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_The Third Sex.
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become restless towards the end, and seldom dip down into the sea with such proud, quiet equilibrium as for example, the mountain-ridge at _Porto fino_--where the Bay of Genoa sings its melody to an end.
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The world always becomes fuller for him who grows up to the full stature of humanity; there are always more interesting fishing-hooks, thrown out to him; the number of his stimuli is continually on the increase, and similarly the varieties of his pleasure and pain,--the higher man becomes always at the same time happier and unhappier.
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But perhaps that error was then, when thou wast still another person--thou art always another person,--just as necessary to thee as all thy present "truths," like a skin, as it were, which concealed and veiled from thee much which thou still mayst not see.
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BOOK FIFTH FEARLESS ONES "Carcasse, tu trembles? Tu tremblerais bien davantage, tu savais, où je te mène.
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But what I have in view will now be understood, namely, that it is always a _metaphysical belief_ on which our belief in science rests,--and that even we knowing ones of to-day, landless and anti-metaphysical, still take _our_ fire from the conflagration kindled by a belief a millennium old, the Christian belief, which was also the belief of Plato, that God is truth, that the truth is divine.
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Granted that this observation is correct, I may proceed further to the conjecture that _consciousness generally has only been developed under the pressure of the necessity for communication,_--that from the first it has been necessary and useful only between man and man (especially between those commanding and those obeying) and has only developed in proportion to its utility Consciousness is properly only a connecting network between man and man,--it is only as such that it has had to develop; the recluse and wild-beast species of men would not have needed it The very fact that our actions, thoughts, feelings and motions come within the range of our consciousness--at least a part of them--is the result of a terrible, prolonged "must" ruling man's destiny: as the most endangered animal he _needed_ help and protection; he needed his fellows, he was obliged to express his distress, he had to know how to make himself understood--and for all this he needed "consciousness" first of all: he had to "know" himself what he lacked, to "know" how he felt, and to "know" what he thought.
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Such an instinct would develop most readily in families of the lower class of the people, who have had to pass their lives in absolute dependence, under shifting pressure and constraint, who (to accommodate themselves to their conditions, to adapt themselves always to new.
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_--In order for once to get a glimpse of our European morality from a distance, in order to.
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_The Question of Intelligibility.
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