Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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only realities." No, such study of history bewilders and
overwhelms. It is not necessary for youth, as the ancients show, but
even in the highest degree dangerous, as the moderns show. Consider
the historical student, the heir of ennui, that appears even in his
boyhood. He has the "methods" for original work, the "correct ideas"
and the airs of the master at his fingers' ends. A little isolated
period of the past is marked out for sacrifice. He cleverly applies
his method, and produces something, or rather, in prouder phrase,
"creates" something. He becomes a "servant of truth" and a ruler in
the great domain of history. If he was what they call ripe as a boy,
he is now over-ripe. You only need shake him and wisdom will rattle
down into your lap; but the wisdom is rotten, and every apple has its
worm. Believe me, if men work in the factory of science and have to
make themselves useful before they are really ripe, science is ruined
as much as the slaves who have been employed too soon. I am sorry to
use the common jargon about slave-owners and taskmasters in respect
of such conditions, that might be thought free from any economic
taint: but the words "factory, labour-market, auction-sale, practical
use," and all the auxiliaries of egoism, come involuntarily to the
lips in describing the younger generation of savants. Successful
mediocrity tends to become still more mediocre, science still more
"useful." Our modern savants are only wise on one subject, in all the
rest they are, to say the least, different from those of the old
stamp. In spite of that they demand honour and profit for themselves,
as if the state and public opinion were bound to take the new coinage
for the same value as the old. The carters have made a trade-compact
among themselves, and settled that genius is superfluous, for every
carrier is being re-stamped as one. And probably a later age will see
that their edifices are only carted together and not built. To those
who have ever on their lips the modern cry of battle and
sacrifice--"Division of labour! fall into line!" we may say roundly:
"If you try to further the progress of science as quickly as
possible, you will end by destroying it as quickly as possible; just
as the hen is worn out which you force to lay too many eggs." The
progress of science has been amazingly rapid in the last decade; but
consider the savants, those exhausted hens. They are certainly not
"harmonious" natures: they can merely cackle more than before,
because they

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Text Comparison with We Philologists Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche, Volume 8

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he may even compose a song of thanksgiving to "Providence.
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Whence comes his pretension to be a teacher in the higher sense, not only of all scientific men, but more especially of all cultured men? This educational power must be taken by the philologist from antiquity; and in such a case people will ask with astonishment: how does it come that we attach such value to a far-off past that we can only become cultured men with the aid of its knowledge? These questions, however, are not asked as a rule: The sway of philology over our means of instruction remains practically unquestioned; and antiquity _has_ the importance assigned to it.
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"We have been through it all.
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30 The peculiarly significant situation of philologists: a class of people to whom we entrust our youth, and who have to investigate quite a special antiquity.
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but these things are not learnt _from_ the ancients, but at best _through_ the ancients, by means of science.
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Even the Reformation could not dispense with classical studies for this purpose.
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This profession consists in the first place of those men who make use of their knowledge of Greek and Roman antiquity to bring up youths of thirteen to twenty years of age, and secondly of those men whose task it is to train specially-gifted pupils to act as future teachers--_i.
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they, trained upon antiquity, should be the most cultured men.
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It is a sad story .
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Minor artists, too, want their public, but they try to get it by inartistic means, such as through the Press, Hanslick,[8] &c.
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98 How can anyone glorify and venerate a whole people! It is the individuals that count, even in the case of the Greeks.
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In the case of the genius, "the intellect will point out the faults which are seldom absent in an instrument that is put to a use for which it was not intended.
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126 At what a distance must one be from the Greeks to ascribe to them such a stupidly narrow autochthony as does Ottfried Muller![10] How Christian it is to assume, with Welcker,[11] that the Greeks were originally monotheistic! How philologists torment themselves by investigating the question whether Homer actually wrote, without being able to grasp the far higher tenet that Greek art long exhibited an inward enmity against writing, and did not wish to be read at all.
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153 Antiquity has been treated by all kinds of historians and their methods.
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Our scientific assumptions admit just as much of an interpretation and utilisation in favour of a besotting philistinism--yea, in favour of bestiality--as also in favour of "blessedness" and soul-inspiration.
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to _create,_ using the word in a spiritual sense: states, laws, works of art, &c.
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Education is love for the offspring; an excess of love over and beyond our self-love.
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193 The highest judgment on life only arising from the highest energy of life.