Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 113

him the first quality of a philosopher--a rude and
strong virility. His father was neither an official nor a savant; he
travelled much abroad with his son,--a great help to one who must
know men rather than books, and worship truth before the state. In
time he got accustomed to national peculiarities: he made England,
France and Italy equally his home, and felt no little sympathy with
the Spanish character. On the whole, he did not think it an honour to
be born in Germany, and I am not sure that the new political
conditions would have made him change his mind. He held quite openly
the opinion that the state's one object was to give protection at
home and abroad, and even protection against its "protectors," and to
attribute any other object to it was to endanger its true end. And
so, to the consternation of all the so-called liberals, he left his
property to the survivors of the Prussian soldiers who fell in 1848
in the fight for order. To understand the state and its duties in
this single sense may seem more and more henceforth the sign of
intellectual superiority; for the man with the _furor philosophicus_
in him will no longer have time for the _furor politicus_, and will
wisely keep from reading the newspapers or serving a party; though he
will not hesitate a moment to take his place in the ranks if his
country be in real need. All states are badly managed, when other men
than politicians busy themselves with politics; and they deserve to
be ruined by their political amateurs.

Schopenhauer had another great advantage--that he had never been
educated for a professor, but worked for some time (though against
his will) as a merchant's clerk, and through all his early years
breathed the freer air of a great commercial house. A savant can
never become a philosopher: Kant himself could not, but remained in a
chrysalis stage to the end, in spite of the innate force of his
genius. Any one who thinks I do Kant wrong in saying this does not
know what a philosopher is--not only a great thinker, but also a real
man; and how could a real man have sprung from a savant? He who lets
conceptions, opinions, events, books come between himself and things,
and is born for history (in the widest sense), will never see
anything at once, and never be himself a thing to be "seen at once";
though both these powers should be in the philosopher, as he must
take most of his doctrine from himself and be himself

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Text Comparison with Homer and Classical Philology

Page 0
Philology is composed of history just as much as of natural science or aesthetics: history, in so far as it endeavours to comprehend the manifestations of the individualities of peoples in ever new images, and the prevailing law in the disappearance of phenomena; natural science, in so far as it strives to fathom the deepest instinct of man, that of speech; aesthetics, finally, because from various antiquities at our disposal it endeavours to pick out the so-called "classical" antiquity, with the view and pretension of excavating the ideal world buried under it, and to hold up to the present the mirror of the classical and everlasting standards.
Page 1
With this contrast the so heartrending and dogmatic tradition follows in a _theory_, and consequently in the practice.
Page 2
From this point onwards we must take notice of a clearly determined and very surprising antagonism which philology has great cause to regret.
Page 3
The entire scientific and artistic movement of this peculiar centaur is bent, though with cyclopic slowness, upon bridging over the gulf between the ideal antiquity--which is perhaps only the magnificent blossoming of the Teutonic longing for the south--and the real antiquity; and thus classical philology pursues only the final end of its own being, which is the fusing together of primarily hostile impulses that have only forcibly been brought together.
Page 4
When historical criticism has confidently seized upon this method of evaporating apparently concrete personalities, it is permissible to point to the first experiment as an important event in the history of sciences, without considering whether it was successful in this instance or not.
Page 5
It was believed that Homer's poem was passed from one generation to another _viva voce_, and faults were attributed to the improvising and at times forgetful bards.
Page 6
we go still further backwards from Aristotle, the inability to create a personality is seen to increase; more and more poems are attributed to Homer; and every period lets us see its degree of criticism by how much and what it considers as Homeric.
Page 7
Could it be possible that that same Nature who so sparingly distributed her rarest and most precious production--genius--should suddenly take the notion of lavishing her gifts in one sole direction? And here the thorny question again made its appearance: Could we not get along with one genius only, and explain the present existence of that unattainable excellence? And now eyes were keenly on the lookout for whatever that excellence and singularity might consist of.
Page 8
hand, wavered between the supposition of one genius plus a number of minor poets, and another hypothesis which assumed only a number of superior and even mediocre individual bards, but also postulated a mysterious discharging, a deep, national, artistic impulse, which shows itself in individual minstrels as an almost indifferent medium.
Page 9
But the same powers which were once active are still so; and the form in which they act has remained exactly the same.
Page 10
, it must be deduced from principles--why this or that individuality appears in this way and not in that.
Page 11
Where, however, a poet is unable to observe artistically with a single glance,.
Page 12
If we include the so-called cyclic poems in this comparison, there remains for the designer of the _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ the indisputable merit of having done something relatively great in this conscious technical composing: a merit which we might have been prepared to recognise from the beginning, and which is in my opinion of the very first order in the domain of instinctive creation.
Page 13
If classical philology goes back again to the same conceptions, and once more tries to pour new wine into old bottles, it is only on the surface that the conceptions are the same: everything has really become new; bottle and mind, wine and word.
Page 14
" By this I wish to signify that all philological activities should be enclosed and surrounded by a philosophical view of things, in which everything individual and isolated is evaporated as something detestable, and in which.
Page 15
Now, therefore, that I have enunciated my philological creed, I trust you will give me cause to hope that I shall no longer be a stranger among you: give me the assurance that in working with you towards this end I am worthily fulfilling the confidence with which the highest authorities of this community have honoured me.