Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 100

for the greatest amount of success
and happiness that can be got from his particular stock of knowledge.
He is required to have just so much idea of his own value (through
his liberal education) as to know what he can ask of life; and he is
assured that a natural and necessary connection between "intelligence
and property" not only exists, but is also a _moral_ necessity. All
education is detested that makes for loneliness, and has an aim above
money-making, and requires a long time: men look askance on such
serious education, as mere "refined egoism" or "immoral
Epicureanism." The converse of course holds, according to the
ordinary morality, that education must be soon over to allow the
pursuit of money to be soon begun, and should be just thorough enough
to allow of much money being made. The amount of education is
determined by commercial interests. In short, "man has a necessary
claim to worldly happiness; only for that reason is education

There is, secondly, the self-interest of the state, which requires
the greatest possible breadth and universality of culture, and has
the most effective weapons to carry out its wishes. If it be firmly
enough established not only to initiate but control education and
bear its whole weight, such breadth will merely profit the
competition of the state with other states. A "highly civilised
state" generally implies, at the present time, the task of setting
free the spiritual forces of a generation just so far as they may be
of use to the existing institutions,--as a mountain stream is split
up by embankments and channels, and its diminished power made to
drive mill-wheels, its full strength being more dangerous than useful
to the mills. And thus "setting free" comes to mean rather "chaining
up." Compare, for example, what the self-interest of the state has
done for Christianity. Christianity is one of the purest
manifestations of the impulse towards culture and the production of
the saint: but being used in countless ways to turn the mills of the
state authorities, it gradually became sick at heart, hypocritical
and degenerate, and in antagonism with its original aim. Its last
phase, the German Reformation, would have been nothing but a sudden
flickering of its dying flame, had it not taken new strength and
light from the clash and conflagration of states.

In the third place, culture will be favoured by all those people who
know their own character to be offensive or tiresome, and wish to
draw a veil of so-called "good form" over them. Words, gestures,
dress, etiquette, and such external things, are meant to produce a
false impression,

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[1] _Cf.
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