Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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THOUGHTS

OUT OF SEASON

PART II


THE USE AND ABUSE OF HISTORY_

SCHOPENHAUER AS EDUCATOR_

By

FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE

TRANSLATED BY

ADRIAN COLLINS, M.A.

[Illustration]


The Complete Works of Friedrich Nietzsche

The First Complete and Authorised English Translation

Edited by Dr Oscar Levy

Volume Five

T.N. FOULIS

13 & 15 FREDERICK STREET

EDINBURGH: AND LONDON

1910



TO L. P.
FROM THE TRANSLATOR.
EN RECONNAISSANCE.




CONTENTS.
INTRODUCTION
THE USE AND ABUSE OF HISTORY
SCHOPENHAUER AS EDUCATOR




INTRODUCTION.


The two essays translated in this volume form the second and third
parts of the _Unzeitgemässe Betrachtungen_. The essay on history was
completed in January, that on Schopenhauer in August, 1874. Both were
written in the few months of feverish activity that Nietzsche could
spare from his duties as Professor of Classical Philology in Bâle.

Nietzsche, who served in an ambulance corps in '71, had seen
something of the Franco-German War, and to him it was the "honest
German bravery" that had won the day. But to the rest of his
countrymen it was a victory for German culture as well; though there
were still a few elegancies, a few refinements of manners, that might
veneer the new culture, and in this regard the conquered might be
allowed the traditional privilege of conquering the conquerors.
Nietzsche answered roundly, "the German does not yet know the meaning
of the word culture," and in the essay on history set himself to show
that the so-called culture was a morass into which the German had
been led by a sixth sense he had developed during the nineteenth
century--the "historical sense": he had been brought by his spiritual
teachers to believe that he was the "crown of the world-process" and
that his highest duty lay in surrendering himself to it.

With Nietzsche, the historical sense became a "malady from which men
suffer," the world-process an illusion, evolutionary theories a
subtle excuse for inactivity. History is for the few not the many,
for the man not the youth, for the great not the small--who are
broken and bewildered by it. It is the lesson of remembrance, and few
are strong enough to bear that lesson. History has no meaning except
as the servant of life and action: and most of us can only act if we
forget. This is the burden of the first essay; and turning from
history to the historian he condemns the "noisy little fellows" who
measure the motives of the great men of the past by their own, and
use the past to justify their present.

But who are the men that can use history rightly, and for whom it is
a help and not a hindrance to life? They are the great men of action
and thought, the "lonely giants amid the pigmies."

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