The Will to Power, Book III and IV An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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...soon in an extended version, alo linking to free sources
for education worldwide ... MOOC's, educational
materials,...)...

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...mastered and controlled.

Schemes for interpreting earthly phenomena must be devised which,
though they do not require...

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...done
this with each newly acquired characteristic, sight itself, which is a
relatively recent development, would also...

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...it further elucidated by Nietzsche's useful demonstration
of the fact that "the easier way of thinking...

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...British
school of organic evolution, and that is, to what extent were Malthus,
and afterwards his disciple...

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...in its origin. Our whole
outlook, everything that gives us joy or pain, must at one...

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...the sensual nature of artists
(Aph. 815); all he wished to make plain was this, that...

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...this hated fundamental will, had man ascribed
all his valuations and all his most sublime inspirations...

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..._Methodologists:_ Aristotle, Bacon, Descartes, Auguste Comte.


469.

The most valuable knowledge is always discovered last: but the...

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...the belief in _things,_
forbids our speaking of "things in themselves."


474.

The idea that a sort of...

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..."inner sense."

Our belief that the will is a cause was so great, that, according to
our...

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...before it has reached our consciousness;
and then the reason reaches consciousness first, whereupon follows
its effect....

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...with each advance of power....

The purpose of knowledge: in this case, as in the case...

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...this fact proves
nothing against the imaginary nature of its origin; it might be a
life-preserving belief...

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...critical faculty. It cannot even define itself!


487.

Should not all philosophy ultimately disclose the first principles...

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...should be methodically drawn to the front, and
no mention should be made of its ultimate...

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...danger of directly questioning the subject _concerning_ the
subject, and all spiritual self-reflection, consists in this,...

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...a primitive (inorganic) state is to _persevere in forms,_
as in the case of the crystal.--In...

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...include all perceptions (for instance, not the electrical
ones);--that is to say, we have _senses_ only...

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...We have posited _our_ conditions
of existence as the _attributes of being_ in general. Owing to...

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...law, and, among the
powerful, it was the greatest artists in abstraction who created the
categories.


514.

A moral--that...

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...is to attempt to derive from this
fact that we possess an absolute truth! ... The...

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...thing for true, and the holding of a thing for not true,--in so
far as they...

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...to which we make
and understand all Being: very good! In that case it were very
proper...

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...been reached, but the road is also made clear for the
error of supposing _that an...

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...into things, because we are able to
_think only_ in the form of language--we also believe...

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...of
thoughts, feelings, and ideas, in consciousness, does not signify that
the order in which they come...

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...is a question _of the perspective of consciousness._


529.

The great misapprehensions:--

(1) The senseless _overestimation of consciousness,_...

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...concludes (1) that there are some propositions which hold good
only on one condition; (2) this...

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...did not regard changes in ourselves merely
as such, but as "things in themselves," which are...

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...pain which
accompanies a wound. Probably the psychic phenomena correspond to all
the organic functions--that is to...

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...logicians who limit _things_ according to the
limitations they find in themselves: but I have long...

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...world; plants are already masters of it. The
greatest men, such as Cæsar and Napoleon (see...

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...apparent facts. The false
fundamental observation is this, that I believe it is I who does
something,...

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...a cause; or we have understood the will to
do this or that, as a cause,...

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...fact that
a rule is observed, or that a necessity is obeyed, or that we have
projected...

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...we
have seen that the subject is an imaginary thing. The antithesis
"thing-in-itself" and "appearance" is untenable;...

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...the establishment of
relations of degree and of force, as a contest....

***

As soon as we _fancy_...

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..._not applicable_ in a
philosophy which believes in things-in-themselves and in appearances.
Kant's mistake--... As a matter...

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...is really only an _opinion_ concerning
that "thing." Or, better still; "_it is worth_" is actually...

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...sum of its qualities--x--_as
the cause of the quality _x_; which is obviously _quite_ absurd and
imbecile!

All...

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...to say, we feel even _proportions_ as _qualities_ in
regard to our possibilities of existence.


564.

But could...

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...against
the whole.

There no longer remains a shadow of a _right_ to speak here of
"appearance." ...

The...

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...the constant return of similar,
familiar, and related things, in their _rationalised character,_ and in
the belief...

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...there is of Being. He twisted the concept
"reality" round and said: "What ye regard as...

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...fear. That
which has been most feared, the cause of the _greatest suffering_ (lust
of power, voluptuousness,...

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...world is
conditioned: _consequently_ there must be an unconditioned world;--this
world is contradictory: _consequently_ there is a...

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...what extent are the various _epistemological positions_
(materialism, sensualism, idealism) consequences of valuations? The
source of the...

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...is on a lower plane than the highest value. Only a "real"
world can be absolutely...

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...highest values, _Method in
research_ is attained only when all _moral prejudices_ have been
overcome: it represents...

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...apparent world? (it was
the real and only one).

2. How does one become one's self as...

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...number of misfortunes come they are cheats, deluders, and
destroyers.

Happiness can be promised only by Being:...

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...meaning, _i.e._
he believes that a will is already in them.

The degree of a man's _will-power_...

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..."apparent" world._

_A._

The _erroneous concepts_ which proceed from this concept are of three
kinds:--

_(a)_ An unknown world:--we...

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...world
must be of less value than the true world? Do not our instincts
contradict this judgment?...

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...three places of origin: _psychological_
error, physiological confusion.

With what attributes is the "other world," as it...

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...the _higher_ kind!--Here we must prove that some order of rank is
necessary,--that the first problem...

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...with a host of hateful truths. For truth is
ugly.


599.

The "purposelessness of all phenomena": the belief...

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...To give a sense to things_--this duty always remains
_over,_ provided _no sense already lies in...

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...purpose of
governing Nature--that is part of the rubric _means._

But the _purpose_ and _will_ of mankind...

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...the
condemnation of, and dissatisfaction with, Becoming, have sprung: once
such a world of Being had been...

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...heartily glad to pay respect
to this principle of profoundest stupidity, if I may be allowed...

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...a mere
superficial judgment to declare that the diamond, graphite, and carbon
are identical. Why? Simply because...

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...certain substances that they have _no_ feeling? No,
we merely cannot tell that they have any....

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...sort of shifting of things and a changing of
places; of a sort of "being" or...

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...purposes
and calculations, know how to express this in formulas and "laws," all
the better for us!...

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..._sense-prejudice_ and a _psychological
prejudice._

Mechanics formulates consecutive phenomena, and it does so
semeiologically, in the terms of...

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...specificness._ My idea is
that every specific body strives to become master of all space, and...

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...The Organic Process._


640.

Man imagines that he was present at the generation of the organic
world: what...

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...things within that
sphere, it _grows_ imperatively.

"Spirit" is only a means and an instrument in the...

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...precisely the tremendous
inner power to shape and to create forms, which merely _uses, exploits_
"environment."

The new...

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...been lost.


653.

We can but laugh at the false "_Altruism_" of biologists: propagation
among the amœbæ appears...

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... To stretch out for power.

"Nutrition"...

Is only a derived phenomenon;...

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...predilection in man to regard all his
thoughts as "inspired," all his values as "imparted to...

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...of an organism out
of an egg.

"The mechanical interpretation": recognises only quantities: but the
real energy is...

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...fact of _human compulsion associated with the feeling of
force._


665.

I have the intention of extending my...

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...as with the
so-called purposefulness of the heat which is radiated from the sun:
the greater part...

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...effect is founded on the principle that
free will _is the cause of every effect:_ thereby...

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...the
intellect, an invention of _causes_ which do not exist. All general
_bodily sensations_ which we do...

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...abnegation," and other fanciful
inventions, are denied in a most thoroughgoing manner by the whole of
the...

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...and is most
concealed; for in practice we always follow its bidding, for the simple
reason that...

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...another cell or organ.

It is the phase of the _modesty of consciousness._ Finally, we can
grasp...

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...the body's consciousness and valuations, its kinds of
pleasure and pain, are _signs of these changes...

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...belong to the very basis of our nature. In this
way only _the more recent_ needs...

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...of dominion,
towards war, towards all that which is not useful, and towards all
order of rank...

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...become lost in the mass. Each vies with the
other to maintain his kind; those creatures...

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...deep. When it does sink far below the skin it immediately
becomes degeneration (type: the Christian)....

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...doubt and suspicion upon life and
the value of life.--The error of the Darwinian school became...

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...Theory of the Will to Power and of Valuations.


688.

_The unitary view of psychology._--We are accustomed...

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...not inherent. We do not know how
to account for any change which is not a...

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...the fundamental will reveals itself.


692.

Is the "will to power" a kind of will, or is...

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...the memory of former strong
moments depresses the present feelings of happiness in this state
comparison reduces...

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...stimuli, does not exist: pleasure and
pain are not opposites.

Pain is undoubtedly an intellectual process in...

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...movement is another and
earlier process--both originate at different points....


700.

The message of pain: in itself pain...

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...pain as the stimulus to an increase or power,
and _(b)_ pain following upon an expenditure...

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...an increase
in happiness! How can one maintain, then, that he has striven after
happiness?..


705.

But while I...

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...start which actually excludes such means,
_i.e._ we made a desideratum in regard to certain means...

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...the
greatest indictment of existence).

Strictly speaking nothing of the nature of Being must be allowed to
remain,--because...

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...good of pleasure
and pain.

Because a mere _means_ must not be elevated to the highest criterion
of...

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...monads
in a relative sense: and this is certain, _that the smallest world
is the most stable...

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...hard and severe
under discipline.


719.

A division of labour among the emotions exists inside society, making
individuals and...

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...of power. Utilitarianism is not, therefore, a fundamental
doctrine; it is only a story of sequels,...

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...a right the right of growth, perhaps.... When the
instincts of a society ultimately make it...

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...persons to satisfy
their sexual desires under conditions obviously designed to safeguard
social order. Of course there...

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...and for
this purpose the music of _Parsifal_ might at all events be tried. For
Parsifal himself,...

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...all those students of
human nature who have sounded the deepest waters of great souls). To
feel...

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...certain elements in society
which cry aloud for hostility; for such a man rouses us from...

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...come into play
without which no one would be a true man. Dostoievsky was not far...

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...But as
it would be no easy matter to ascertain the degree of sensitiveness
of each individual...

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...amount
of immorality which it allows itself without falling in its own
estimation--very much the reverse! In...

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...it--we shall be quite able to achieve our victory of
power without its help. The real...

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...will be either expelled
or annihilated."--This was the fundamental feeling of all ancient
legislation. The idea of...

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...an injustice. Among the
more honest of these opponents of society this is what is said:...

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...which has only become inherent in
certain cases--that is to say, become incarnate in them--by accident:
but...

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...For this purpose; man was declared "free": to
this end every action had to be regarded...

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...means and nothing _more_! But
nowadays people are trying to understand _the herd_ as they would...

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...more than any other animal was originally _altruistic_--hence
his slow growth (child) and lofty development. Hence,...

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...its lowest form, the will to live at all costs--the
instinct of self-preservation.

(2) Subordination, with the...

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..."love of humanity," of "love of the
people," of the "gospel," of "truth" of "God," of...

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...perform one task is best attained,--but
this is almost a definition of health.

(2) The antagonism of...

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...for the
latter lets all questions of eternal bliss go to the devil,--it is
not interested in...

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...the praise of the many. The
demand for equal rights (that is to say, the privilege...

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...out
from others. Individualism is followed by a development in groups and
organs; correlative tendencies join up...

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...the assumption that both moral and immoral actions are the
result of a spontaneous will--in short,...

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...to be remodelled
and made possible by means of misunderstanding and adjusting one's self
_sub specie boni._...

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...the altruistic mode of action with the
natural order of things. Altruism is sought in the...

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...that our speculations concerning pleasure
and pain are not of cosmic, far less then of metaphysical,...

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...mob that rules, when it is the
mob that dispenses the honours.


793.

My "future": a severe polytechnic...

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..._highest
feeling of power_ is concentrated in the classical type. To react with
difficulty: great consciousness: no...

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...Artists should not see things as they are; they should
see them fuller, simpler, stronger: to...

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...of power thus manifesting itself in the conquest of opposites;
and achieved without a feeling of...

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...it with a charm that is
determined by the association of various judgments concerning beauty,
which, however,...

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...stronger influence by being unconscious it actually
becomes unconscious.)


807.

What a host of things can be accomplished...

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...the
charm-mirrors of Circe.... In this respect to be man or an animal
makes no difference: and...

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...all the
more subtle recollections of intoxication; there is actually a special
kind of memory which underlies...

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...mirror of one's own fulness and perfection.

(2) The extreme sharpness of certain senses, so that...

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...necessary fault: for the artist who would begin to
understand himself would therewith begin to mistake...

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...self-deception
and no farce that promises it the most fleeting satisfaction. (The
incapacity for pride and the...

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...yields in this respect, and who spends
himself, is betrayed: by so doing he reveals his...

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...is not general, runs counter to the instinct
which finds its joy and its strength in...

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...a
_contradictio_?--Yes.--Schopenhauer is in error when he makes certain
works of art serve the purpose of pessimism....

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...art is confounded with that of science,
with that of the Church, or with that of...

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...are all archæologists,
psychologists, and impresarios of one or another kind of event or
theory. They enjoy...

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...The latter was the most intellectual and most
high-spirited satyr, who as a musician abided by...

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...æsthetic which would impose laws upon
musicians and give them a conscience; and as a result...

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...in France have
become plastic artists, and that the musicians of Germany have become
actors and culturemongers?


839.

To-day...

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...instinct, it is even a good sign.... Cunning
Christianity: the type of the music which came...

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...every one with the
greatness Of their sacrilege.... All arts know this kind of aspirant to
the...

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...where it was not exactly Christian.

With a moral interpretation the world is insufferable; Christianity was
the...

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...the reactive.


848.

In order to be a classic, one must be possessed of all the strong...

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...of naturalness!

Without either prejudice or indulgence we should try and investigate
upon what soil a classical...

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...right in thinking that tragedy taught
resignation (_i.e._ a meek renunciation of happiness, hope, and of
the...

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..._e.g._
the "triumph of the moral order of things," or the teaching of the
"uselessness of existence,"...

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...world,
thus constituted is the true world. We are in need of lies in order to
rise...

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...knowledge.

Art is the alleviation of the man of action,--of him who not only sees
the terrible...

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...putting a yoke upon all
less intelligent forces.


857.

I distinguish between the type which represents ascending life...

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...priori_ truths (those
who were accustomed to believe in something sought such truths!),
but _free_ submission to...

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...which glorifies weakness,
love, and modesty as divine: or, better still, she makes the strong
weak--she _rules_...

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...both in tempo and in means,
as characterises our civilisation, man's ballast is shifted. Those
men whose...

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...nonsense to suppose that this general
_conquest of values_ is anti-biological. In order to explain it,...

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...surveyed, arose adaptation,
stultification, higher Chinese culture, modesty in the Instincts,
and satisfaction at the sight of...

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...aspect of the future European: the latter regarded as the most
intelligent servile animal, very industrious,...

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...of those to whom vice no longer affords
any pleasure). The capacity for restraint was represented...

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...Has anybody ever noticed that all
interesting men are lacking in heaven? ... This is only...

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...the mightiest,--God on the Cross!


875.

_Higher man and gregarious man._--When great men are _wanting,_ the
great of...

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...effects. But what about the man who has his own
taste on his tongue, who is...

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...same time more evil, is my formula for this inevitable fact.

The majority of people are...

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...that things pursue their course _independently_ of the voice
of the many, is the reason why,...

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...sphere of moral judgments.


887.

Where the _strongest natures_ are to be sought. The ruin and
degeneration of...

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...(as
State officials, husbands, slaves of the desk, newspaper readers,
and soldiers). Such an existence may perhaps...

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...their mediocrity! As
you observe, I do precisely the reverse: every step away from
mediocrity--thus do I...

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...life, in so far as it would overcome vital types.


898.

_The strong of the future._--To what...

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...the imperatives of virtue, rich enough to be in no need of
economy or pedantry; beyond...

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...regarded as a
sub-structure: economic point of view, education conceived as breeding.


904.

A consideration which "free spirits"...

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...or more daring?

6. Do we want to attain a goal, or do we want to...

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...praise is scanty, that leniency is non-existent; that blame is
sharp, practical, and without reprieve, and...

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...value of his nature.

(2) _Fasting:_--In every sense--even as a means of maintaining the
capacity for taking...

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...as when the European imagines that culture belongs to
Europe alone, and when he regards himself...

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...in the love of the sexes or in that duality which is called
ego, than a...

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...armour, likewise in the choice of his
circumstances and in the development of every one of...

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...John Stuart Mill._--I abhor the man's vulgarity when he says:
"What is right for one man...

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...generosity, pity, or
hostility, is the cause of the greatest evil. Greatness of character
does not consist...

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...the exact reverse of
self-denial, of hatred of self, of Pascalism.


933.

_In short,_ what we require is...

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...them.

Any society which would of itself preserve a feeling of respect
and _délicatesse_ in regard to...

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...ἐγκράτεια and ἄσκησις are only
steps to higher things. Above them stands "golden Nature."

_"Thou shalt"_--unconditional obedience...

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...communicativeness of our hearts goes very
deep; to us, loneliness is not a matter of choice,...

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...long enmities: we lack the power of easy
reconciliations.

--We have a loathing of demagogism, of enlightenment,...

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...hearty, nor modest, except _inter pares_; that one is _always
playing a part._


949.

The fact that one...

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...problems--those strong souls of to-day
whose dominion over themselves is unswerving: is it not high time,
now...

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...of danger, ease, facilities for
livelihood, and, last but not least, "if all goes well," even...

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...me, belong, above all, the pessimists of
Europe, the poets and thinkers of a revolted idealism,...

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...the
fate of the earth into their own hands, and working as artists upon man
himself. Enough!...

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...affirmative is a proof of
weakness; all weakness is weakness of will. The man of faith,...

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...to endure them. As a matter of fact,
wherever the plant, man, is found strong, mighty...

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...powers nor our aim in life has stepped
peremptorily into our consciousness; the premature certainty of
conscience...

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...a long time in
vain to attach a particular meaning to the word "philosopher,"--for I
found many...

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...or that
their shoulders are not broad enough for such burdens, or that they
are already taken...

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...enormous multiplicity of qualities; he
must be a sort of abbreviation of man and have all...

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...they will
consequently insist! As they will need one so badly, they will have it.

We must...

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...of their fellows: this is part of their
prudence. For such a man to maintain himself...

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...of seeking for their equals. They will live alone, and
probably know the torments of all...

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...little
laboriously acquired, through great industry, self-control, and keeping
one's self within narrow bounds, through a frequent,...

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...serious accidents.

He grows stronger under the misfortunes which threaten to annihilate
him.

He instinctively gathers from all...

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..._all_ values; the principle of their _order of rank_ which has
prevailed hitherto is thus overthrown.


1007.

Transvalue...

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...is as if it now no
longer had enough teeth to do so)? Is one still...

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...finds that he is tolerated even by God:[6] better still, he has
become interesting as one...

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...the future of
mankind guaranteed in him. In the same way, we did not dare to...

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...evil, above all, as merited: evil is
thus justified as a punishment.

--In short, _man submits to...

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...been effectively attained.


1020.

_The principal kinds of pessimism:--_

The pessimism of _sensitiveness_ (excessive irritability with a
preponderance of...

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...for the purpose of war (the Christian morality of the feeling
of sin, as well as...

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...curse
everything terrible.

Wherever a culture points to anything as evil, it betrays its _fear_
and therefore weakness.

_Thesis:_...

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...rich and powerful soul not only gets over painful and even terrible
losses, deprivations, robberies, and...

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...contrasts, and
_saving_ and _justifying_ them in a divine agony. God as the beyond,
the superior elevation,...

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...not, at bottom, still possible? Here is
a little ideal that I seize upon every five...

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...mean that it remains standing at a negation, at a
_no,_ or at a will to...

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...sieve, that thinning and
mincing machine, or whatever it is called, which in the language of...

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...and annihilating.

The word "_Apollonian_" expresses: the constraint to be absolutely
isolated, to the typical "individual," to...

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...of _deification of the body_ and are most remote from the ascetic
philosophy of the principle...

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...for the sight of new faces and the
sound of new voices; to cleanse one's soul...

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...most excruciating suffering: he is sufficiently strong, rich,
and capable of deifying, to be able to...

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...is a principle _of
selection_ in the service of _power_ (and barbarity!).

The ripeness of man for...

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...renewing its forms and its conditions
_for all eternity._ Although the universe is no longer a...

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...and wines into the sea? My
consolation is that everything that has been is eternal: the...

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...themselves. If, for instance, materialism
cannot consistently escape the conclusion of a finite state, which
William Thomson...

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...uniformity, from
the play of contradictions back into the delight of consonance, saying
yea unto itself, even...