as typical, would set us down as belonging to a lower
class of man. The one fault that has to be avoided here, is to regard
them as typical. There is another kind of act of which _we_ are
unworthy: exceptional acts, born of a particular abundance of happiness
and health; they are the highest waves of our spring tides, driven to
an unusual height by a storm--an accident: such acts and "deeds" are
also not typical. An artist should never be judged according to the
measure of his works.
A. In proportion as Christianity seems necessary to-day, man is still
wild and fatal....
B. In another sense, it is not necessary, but extremely dangerous,
though it is captivating and seductive, because it corresponds with
the _morbid_ character of whole classes and types of modern humanity,
... they simply follow their inclinations when they aspire to
Christianity--they are decadents of all kinds.
A and B must be kept very sharply apart. In the _case of A,_
Christianity is a cure, or at least a taming process (under certain
circumstances it serves the purpose of making people ill: and this is
sometimes useful as a means of subduing savage and brutal natures).
In the _case of B,_ it is a symptom of illness itself, it renders the
state of decadence _more acute_; in this case it stands opposed to
a _corroborating_ system of treatment, it is the invalid's instinct
standing _against_ that which would be most salutary to him.
On one side there are the _serious,_ the _dignified,_ and _reflective_
people: and on the other the barbarous, the unclean, and the
irresponsible beasts: it is merely a question of _taming animals_--and
in this case the tamer must be hard, terrible, and awe-inspiring, at
least to his beasts.
All essential requirements must be imposed upon the unruly creatures
with almost brutal distinctness--that is to say, magnified a thousand
Even the fulfilment of the requirement must be presented in the
coarsest way possible, so that it may command respect, as in the case
of the spiritualisation of the Brahmins. _The struggle with the rabble
and the herd._ If any degree of tameness and order has been reached,
the chasm separating these _purified_ and _regenerated_ people from the
terrible _remainder_ must have been bridged....
This chasm is a means of increasing self-respect in higher castes,
and of confirming their belief in _that_ which they represent--hence
the _Chandala._ Contempt and its excess are perfectly correct
psychologically--that is to say, magnified a hundred times, so that it
may at least be felt.
The struggle against _brutal_ instincts is quite different from
the struggle against _morbid_ instincts; it may
Our grandfather Oehler was a bright, clever man, and.Page 4
the limitation imposed upon him by his years.Page 7
My brother then made a second attempt to mount, and succeeded this time, notwithstanding the fact that he had severely sprained and torn two muscles in his chest, and had seriously bruised the adjacent ribs.Page 8
" My brother ultimately accepted the appointment, and, in view of his published philological works, he was immediately granted the doctor's degree by the University of Leipzig.Page 16
A fundamental question is the relation of the Greek to pain, his degree of sensibility,--did this relation remain constant? or did it veer about?--the question, whether his ever-increasing _longing for beauty,_ for festivals, gaieties, new cults, did really grow out of want, privation, melancholy, pain? For suppose even this to be true--and Pericles (or Thucydides) intimates as much in the great Funeral Speech:--whence then the opposite longing, which appeared first in the order of time, the _longing for the ugly_, the good, resolute desire of the Old Hellene for pessimism, for tragic myth, for the picture of all that is terrible, evil, enigmatical, destructive, fatal at the basis of existence,--whence then must tragedy have sprung? Perhaps from _joy,_ from strength, from exuberant health, from over-fullness.Page 19
" In very fact, I have since learned to regard this "spirit of Teutonism" as something to be despaired of and unsparingly treated, as also our present _German music,_ which is Romanticism through and through and the most un-Grecian of all possible forms of art: and moreover a first-rate nerve-destroyer, doubly dangerous for a people given to drinking and revering the unclear as a virtue, namely, in its twofold capacity of an intoxicating and stupefying narcotic.Page 33
Indeed, he had to recognise still more than this: his entire existence, with all its beauty and moderation, rested on a hidden substratum of suffering and of knowledge, which was again disclosed to him by the Dionysian.Page 36
While the latter lives in these pictures, and only in them, with joyful satisfaction, and never grows tired of contemplating them with love, even in their minutest characters, while even the picture of the angry.Page 37
295):--"It is the subject of the will, _i.Page 39
Hence all our knowledge of art is at bottom quite illusory, because, as knowing persons we are not one and identical with the Being who, as the sole author and spectator of this comedy of art, prepares a perpetual entertainment for himself.Page 45
Art saves him, and through art life saves him--for herself.Page 47
Schiller is right also with reference to these beginnings of tragic art: the chorus is a living bulwark against the onsets of reality, because it--the satyric chorus--portrays existence more truthfully, more realistically, more perfectly than the cultured man who ordinarily considers himself as the only reality.Page 53
If this explanation does justice to the poet, it may still be asked whether the substance of the myth is thereby exhausted; and here it turns out that the entire conception of the poet is nothing but the light-picture which healing nature holds up to us after a glance into the abyss.Page 67
The Euripidian _prologue_ may serve us as an example of the productivity of this, rationalistic method.Page 72
 Woe! Woe! Thou hast it destroyed, The beautiful world; With powerful fist; In ruin 'tis hurled! _Faust,_ trans.Page 85
 That is "the will" as understood by Schopenhauer.Page 93
We cannot designate the intrinsic substance of Socratic culture more distinctly than by calling it _the culture of the opera_: for it is in this department that culture has expressed itself with special naÃ¯vetÃ© concerning its aims and perceptions, which is sufficiently surprising when we compare the genesis of the opera and the facts of operatic development with the eternal truths of the Apollonian and Dionysian.Page 100
And when did we require these highest of all teachers more than at present, when we experience _a re-birth of tragedy_ and are in danger alike of not knowing whence it comes, and of being unable to make clear to ourselves whither it tends.Page 108
He feels the actions of the hero to be justified, and is nevertheless still more elated when these actions annihilate their originator.Page 112
For he will thus be enabled to determine how far he is on the whole capable of understanding _myth,_ that is to say, the concentrated picture of the world, which, as abbreviature of phenomena, cannot dispense with wonder.