_demands an explanation...._
On the other hand, the _method_ of "salvation" may also develop
from the above: every dissipation of the feelings, whether prayers,
movements, attitudes, or oaths, has been provoked, and exhaustion
follows; very often it is acute, or it appears in the form of
epilepsy. And behind this condition of deep somnolence there come signs
of recovery--or, in religious parlance, "Salvation."
Formerly, the conditions and results of _physiological exhaustion_ were
considered more important than healthy conditions and their results,
and this was owing to the suddenness, fearfulness, and mysteriousness
of the former. Men were terrified by themselves, and postulated the
existence of a _higher_ world. People have ascribed the origin of the
idea of two worlds--one this side of the grave and the other beyond
it--to sleep and dreams, to shadows, to night, and to the fear of
Nature: but the symptoms of physiological exhaustion should, above all,
have been considered.
Ancient religions have quite special methods of disciplining the
pious into states of exhaustion, in which they _must_ experience such
things.... The idea was, that one entered into a new order of things,
where everything ceases to be known.--The _semblance_ of a higher
Sleep is the result of every kind of exhaustion; exhaustion follows
upon all excessive excitement....
In all pessimistic religions and philosophies there is a yearning for
sleep; the very notion "sleep" is deified and worshipped.
In this case the exhaustion is racial; sleep regarded psychologically
is only a symbol of a much deeper and longer _compulsion to rest....
In praxi_ it is death which rules here in the seductive image of its
The whole of the Christian training in repentance and redemption may
be regarded as a _folie circulaire_ arbitrarily produced; though,
of course, it can be produced only in people who are predisposed to
it--that is to say, who have morbid tendencies in their constitutions.
_Against remorse and its purely psychical treatment._--To be unable
to have done with an experience is already a sign of decadence.
This reopening of old wounds, this wallowing in self-contempt and
depression, is an additional form of disease; no "salvation of the
soul" ever results from it, but only a new kind of spiritual illness....
These "conditions of salvation" of which the Christian is conscious are
merely variations of the same diseased state--the interpretation of an
attack of epilepsy by means of a particular formula which is provided,
_not_ by science, but by religious mania.
When a man is ill his very _goodness_ is sickly.... By far the
greatest portion of the psychical apparatus which Christianity has
used, is now classed among the various forms of hysteria and epilepsy.
It seems to be written in the language of the thawing-wind: there is wantonness, restlessness, contradiction and April-weather in it; so that one is as constantly reminded of the proximity of winter as of the _victory_ over it: the victory which is coming, which must come, which has perhaps already come.Page 18
" But what is kind-heartedness, refinement and genius to me, if he who has these virtues harbours indolent sentiments in belief and judgment, if _the longing for certainty_ does not rule in him, as his innermost desire and profoundest need--as that which separates higher from lower men! In certain pious people I have found a hatred of reason, and have been favourably disposed to them for it: their bad intellectual conscience at least still betrayed itself in this manner! But to stand in the midst of this _rerum concordia discors_ and all the marvellous uncertainty and ambiguity of existence, _and not to question,_ not to tremble with desire and delight in questioning, not even to hate the questioner--perhaps even to make merry over him to the extent of weariness--that is what I.Page 62
Among the Pythagoreans it made its appearance as a philosophical doctrine and as an artifice of teaching: but long before there were philosophers music was acknowledged to possess the power of unburdening the emotions, of purifying the soul, of soothing the _ferocia animi_--and this was owing to the rhythmical element in music.Page 64
Is it not a very funny thing that the most serious philosophers, however anxious they are in other respects for strict certainty, still appeal to _poetical sayings_ in order to give their thoughts force and credibility? and yet it is more dangerous to a truth when the poet assents to it than when he contradicts it! For, as Homer says, "Minstrels speak much falsehood!"-- 85.Page 73
--Finally, it is of little importance what the philosophy of an artist is, provided it is only a supplementary philosophy, and does not do any injury to his art itself.Page 97
Where there is ruling there are masses: where there are masses there is need of slavery.Page 110
events has now reached its highest point.Page 114
_--It seems to me that most men do not believe in lofty moods, unless it be for the moment, or at the most for a quarter of an hour,--except the few who know by experience a longer duration of high feeling.Page 119
Society feels with satisfaction that it has a reliable _tool_ ready at all times in the virtue of this one, in the ambition of that one, and in the reflection and passion of a third one,--it honours this _tool-like nature,_ this self-constancy, this unchangeableness in opinions, efforts, and even in faults, with the highest honours.Page 120
But it has died in these dry words, and hangs and flaps about in them--and now I hardly know, when I look upon it, how I could have had such happiness when I caught this bird.Page 122
Whatever has _value_ in the present world, has not it in itself, by its nature,--nature is always worthless:--but a value was once given to it, bestowed upon it and it was _we_ who gave and bestowed! We only have created the world _which is of any account to man!_--But it is precisely this knowledge that we lack, and when we get hold of it for a moment we have forgotten it the next: we misunderstand our highest power, we contemplative men, and estimate ourselves at too low a rate,--we are neither as _proud nor as happy_ as we might be.Page 127
which the compassionate person plays the rÃ´le of fate: he knows nothing of all the inner consequences and complications which are called misfortune for _me_ or for _you!_ The entire economy of my soul and its adjustment by "misfortune," the uprising of new sources and needs, the closing up of old wounds, the repudiation of whole periods of the past--none of these things which may be connected with misfortune preoccupy the dear sympathiser.Page 142
--_-I admire the courage and wisdom of Socrates in all that he did, said--and did not say.Page 144
_--The most important of more recent events--that "God is dead," that the belief in the Christian God has become unworthy of belief--already begins to cast its first shadows over Europe.Page 150
Some have still need of metaphysics; but also the impatient _longing for certainty_ which at present discharges itself in scientific, positivist fashion among large numbers of the people, the longing by all means to get at something stable (while on account of the warmth of the longing the establishing of the certainty is more leisurely and negligently undertaken):--even this is still the longing for a hold, a support; in short, the _instinct of weakness,_ which, while not actually creating religions, metaphysics, and convictions of all kinds, nevertheless--preserves them.Page 163
I think not.Page 164
When we thus reject the Christian interpretation, and condemn its "significance" as a forgery, we are immediately confronted in a striking manner with the _Schopenhauerian_ question: _Has existence then a significance at all?_--the question which will require a couple of centuries even to be completely heard in all its profundity.Page 165
"Modern ideas" also belong to this peasant insurrection of the north against the colder, more ambiguous, more suspicious spirit of the south, which has built itself its greatest monument in the Christian Church.