of practice, and of compulsion to
practise). The castrator formulates a host of new self-preservative
measures for a perfectly definite species of men: in this sense he is
a realist. The _means_ to which he has recourse for establishing his
legislation, are the same as those of ancient legislators: he appeals
to all authorities, to "God," and he exploits the notions "guilt and
punishment"--that is to say, he avails himself of the whole of the
older ideal, but interprets it differently; for instance: punishment is
given a place in the inner self (it is called the pang of conscience).
In practice this kind of man _meets with his end_ the moment the
exceptional conditions favouring his existence cease to prevail--a sort
of insular happiness, like that of Tahiti, and of the little Jews in
the Roman provinces. Their only _natural_ foe is the soil from which
they spring: they must wage war against that, and once more give their
_offensive_ and _defensive_ passions rope in order to be equal to
it: their opponents are the adherents of the old ideal (this kind of
hostility is shown on a grand scale by Paul in relation to Judaism, and
by Luther in relation to the priestly ascetic ideal). The mildest form
of this antagonism is certainly that of the first Buddhists; perhaps
nothing has given rise to so much work, as the enfeeblement and
discouragement of the feeling of _antagonism._ The struggle against
resentment almost seems the Buddhist's first duty; thus only is his
_peace_ of soul secured. To isolate oneself without bitterness, this
presupposes the existence of a surprisingly mild and sweet order of
The _Astuteness of moral castration._--How is war waged against
the virile passions and valuations? No violent physical means are
available; the war must therefore be one of ruses, spells, and lies--in
short, a "spiritual war."
First recipe: One appropriates virtue in general, and makes it the main
feature of one's ideal; the older ideal is denied and declared to be
_the reverse of all ideals._ Slander has to be carried to a fine art
for this purpose.
Second recipe: A type of man is set up as a general _standard_; and
this is projected into all things, behind all things, and behind the
destiny of all things--as God.
Third recipe: The opponents of one's ideal are declared to be the
opponents of God; one arrogates to oneself a _right_ to great pathos,
to power, and a right to curse and to bless.
Fourth recipe: All suffering, all gruesome, terrible, and fatal things
are declared to be the results of opposition to _ones_ ideal--all
suffering is _punishment_ even
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