priesthood and theology--a _ruling_ caste and
The attempt made to suppress the fussy importance of the "person,"
culminated in the belief in the eternal "personality" (and in the
anxiety concerning "eternal salvation" ...), and in the most
paradoxical exaggeration of individual egoism.
This is the humorous side of the question--tragic humour: Paul again
set up on a large scale precisely what Jesus had overthrown by His
life. At last, when the Church edifice was complete, it even sanctioned
the _existence_ of the _State._
The Church is precisely that against which Jesus inveighed--and against
which He taught His disciples to fight.
A God who died for our sins, salvation through faith, resurrection
after death--all these things are the counterfeit coins of real
Christianity, for which that pernicious blockhead Paul must be held
The _life which must serve as an example_ consists in love and
humility; in the abundance of hearty emotion which does not even
exclude the lowliest; in the formal renunciation of all desire of
making its rights felt; in conquest, in the sense of triumph over
oneself; in the belief in salvation in this world, despite all sorrow,
opposition, and death; in forgiveness and the absence of anger and
contempt; in the absence of a desire to be rewarded; in the refusal
to be bound to anybody; abandonment to all that is most spiritual and
intellectual;--in fact, a very proud life controlled by the will of a
servile and poor life.
Once the Church had allowed itself to take over _all the Christian
practice,_ and had formally sanctioned the State,--that kind of life
which Jesus combats and condemns,--it was obliged to lay the sense
of Christianity in other things than early Christian ideals--that is
to say, in the _faith_ in incredible things, in the ceremonial of
prayers, worship, feasts, etc. etc. The notions "sin," "forgiveness,"
"punishment," "reward"--everything, in fact, which had nothing in
common with, and was quite _absent_ from, primitive Christianity, now
comes into the foreground.
An appalling stew of Greek philosophy and Judaism; asceticism;
continual judgments and condemnations; the order of rank, etc.
Christianity has, from the first, always transformed the symbolical
into crude realities:
(1) The antitheses "true life" and "false life" were misunderstood and
changed into "life here" and "life beyond."
(2) The notion "eternal life," as opposed to the personal life which is
ephemeral, is translated into "personal immortality";
(3) The process of fraternising by means of sharing the same food and
drink, after the Hebrew-Arabian manner, is interpreted as the "miracle
(4) "Resurrection" which was intended to mean the entrance to the
"true life," in the sense of being intellectually "born again," becomes
an historical contingency,
Where any distinction was actually made, for example, later Greek thought was enormously over-rated, and early Greek thought equally undervalued.Page 5
When such ant-like work is not carried out under any special direction the greater part of it is simply nonsense, and quite superfluous.Page 9
In all those places where European culture has found its way, people have accepted secondary schools based upon a foundation of Latin and Greek as the first and highest means of instruction.Page 10
The desire for classical antiquity as it is now felt should be tested, and, as it were, taken to pieces and analysed with a view to seeing how much of this desire is due to habit, and how much to mere love of adventure--I refer to that inward and active desire, new and strange, which gives rise to a productive conviction from day to day, the desire for a higher goal, and also the means thereto .Page 14
_, a battle against the old culture.Page 15
We must wait patiently until the spirit moves us.Page 16
The first-named philologists are entrusted with the care of certain specially-chosen youths, those who, early in life, show signs of talent and a sense of what is noble, and whose parents are prepared to allow plenty of time and money for their education.Page 17
47 It is not true to say that we can attain culture through antiquity alone.Page 18
55 Horace was summoned by Bentley as before a judgment seat, the authority of which he would have been the first to repudiate.Page 19
Markland, towards the end of his life--as was the case with so many others like him--became imbued with a repugnance for all scholarly reputation, to such an extent, indeed, that he partly tore up and partly burnt several works which he had long had in hand.Page 20
"In the end, only those few ought to attain really complete knowledge who are born with artistic talent and furnished with scholarship, and who make use of the best opportunities of securing, both theoretically and practically, the necessary technical knowledge" True! 63 Instead of forming our students on the Latin models I recommend the Greek, especially Demosthenes .Page 22
Young people cannot understand the political affairs of antiquity.Page 23
89 The inherited characteristic of our present-day philologists .Page 25
and in the case of the Greeks there are some factors which are very favourable to the development of the individual.Page 26
Individuality raised to the highest power through the [Greek: polis].Page 27
that is a goal which dazzles the eyes of our dreamers of the future! It was, on the contrary, dreadful; for this is a matter that.Page 35
On this account an imitation of antiquity is a false tendency .Page 38
And it is only as creators that we shall be able to take anything from the Greeks.Page 39
The objective, emasculated philologist, who is but a philistine of culture and a worker in "pure science," is, however, a sad spectacle.Page 42
Art and history--dangerous.