The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 61

penance."

The _holy lie,_ therefore, applies principally to the _purpose_ of
an action (the natural purpose, reason, is made to vanish: a moral
purpose, the observance of some law, a service to God, seems to be the
purpose): to the _consequence_ of an action (the natural consequence
is interpreted as something supernatural, and, in order to be on
surer ground, other incontrollable and supernatural consequences are
foretold).

In this way the concepts _good_ and _evil_ are created, and seem
quite divorced from the natural concepts: "useful," "harmful,"
"life-promoting," "life-retarding,"--indeed, inasmuch as _another_
life is imagined, the former concepts may even be _antagonistic_ to
Nature's concepts of good and evil. In this way, the proverbial concept
"conscience" is created: an inner voice, which, though it makes itself
heard in regard to every action, does not measure the worth of that
action according to its results, but according to its conformity or
non-conformity to the "law."

The holy lie therefore invented: (1) a _god_ who _punishes_ and
_rewards,_ who recognises and carefully observes the law-book of the
priests, and who is particular about sending them into the world as
his mouthpieces and plenipotentiaries; (2) an _After Life,_ in which,
alone, the great penal machine is supposed to be active--to this end
the _immortality of the soul_ was invented; (3) a _conscience in
man,_ understood as the knowledge that good and evil are permanent
values--that God himself speaks through it, whenever its counsels are
in conformity with priestly precepts; (4) _Morality_ as the denial of
all natural processes, as the subjection of all phenomena to a moral
order, as the interpretation of all phenomena as the effects of a moral
order of things (that is to say, the concept of punishment and reward),
as the only power and only creator of all transformations; (5) _Truths_
given, revealed, and identical with the teaching of the priests: as the
condition to all salvation and happiness in this and the next world.

_In short_: what is the price paid for the _improvement_ supposed
to be due to morality?--The unhinging of _reason,_ the reduction of
all motives to fear and hope (punishment and reward); _dependence_
upon the tutelage of priests, and upon a formulary exactitude
which is supposed to express a divine will; the implantation of
a "conscience" which establishes a false science in the place of
experience and experiment: as though all one had to do or had not
to do were predetermined--a kind of contraction of the seeking and
striving spirit;--_in short_: the worst _mutilation_ of man that can be
imagined, and it is pretended that "the good man" is the result.

Practically speaking, all reason, the

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 6
He who feels in complete harmony with the present state of affairs and who acquiesces in it _as something_ "_selbstverstaendliches_,"[1] excites our envy neither in regard to his faith nor in regard to that egregious word "_selbstverstaendlich_," so frequently heard in fashionable circles.
Page 8
I cannot, however, profess to have the same courageous confidence which they displayed, both in their daring utterance of forbidden truths, and in the still more daring conception of the hopes with which they astonished me.
Page 20
I was overcome by a feeling of general discouragement; my recourse to solitude was the result neither of pride nor arrogance.
Page 21
In this quarter all culture is loathed which isolates, which sets goals beyond gold and gain, and which requires time: it is customary to dispose of such eccentric tendencies in education as systems of 'Higher Egotism,' or of 'Immoral Culture--Epicureanism.
Page 23
In the newspaper the peculiar educational aims of the present culminate, just as the journalist, the servant of the moment, has stepped into the place of the genius, of the leader for all time, of the deliverer from the tyranny of the moment.
Page 25
"Let any one examine the pedagogic literature of the present; he who is not shocked at its utter poverty of spirit and its ridiculously awkward antics is beyond being spoiled.
Page 32
' And he who regards 'scientific education' as the object of a public school thereby sacrifices 'classical education' and the so-called 'formal education,' at one stroke, as the scientific man and the cultured man belong to two different spheres which, though coming together at times in the same individual, are never reconciled.
Page 35
' Let every one's own experience tell him what he had of Homer and Sophocles at the hands of such eager teachers.
Page 38
"We are therefore all the more anxious to hold fast to that German spirit which revealed itself in the German Reformation, and in German music, and which has shown its enduring and genuine strength in the enormous.
Page 40
On the other hand, it would seem in the meantime as if the spirit of antiquity, in its fundamental principles, had already been driven away from the portals of the public schools, and as if here also the gates were thrown open as widely as possible to the be-flattered and pampered type of our present self-styled "German culture.
Page 43
_ all those who hold fast to the aristocratic nature of the mind; for, at bottom, they regard as their goal the emancipation of the masses from the mastery of the great few; they seek to overthrow the most sacred hierarchy in the kingdom of the intellect--the servitude of the masses, their submissive obedience, their instinct of loyalty to the rule of genius.
Page 44
But for the genius to make his appearance; for him to emerge from among the people; to portray the reflected picture, as it were, the dazzling brilliancy of the peculiar colours of this people; to depict the noble destiny of a people in the similitude of an individual in a work which will last for all time, thereby making his nation itself eternal, and redeeming it from the ever-shifting element of transient things: all this is possible for the genius only when he has been brought up and come to maturity in the tender care of the culture of a people; whilst, on the other hand, without this sheltering home, the genius will not, generally speaking, be able to rise to the height of his eternal flight, but will at an early moment, like a stranger weather-driven upon a bleak, snow-covered desert, slink away from the inhospitable land.
Page 45
A third feels ill at ease when examining all the mysterious.
Page 51
" "Such a comparison," said the philosopher, "would be quite hyperbolical, and would not hobble along on one leg only.
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What is lost by this new point of view is not only a poetical phantasmagoria, but the instinctive, true, and unique point of view, instead of which we have shrewd and clever calculations, and, so to speak, overreachings of nature.
Page 58
What with the dog and the men there was a scramble that lasted a few minutes, until my friend began to call out loudly, parodying the philosopher's own words: "In the name of all culture and pseudo-culture, what does the silly dog want with us? Hence, you confounded dog; you uninitiated, never to be initiated; hasten away from us, silent and ashamed!" After this outburst matters were cleared up to some extent, at any.
Page 62
It may perhaps be a law of nature that only the later generations are destined to know by what divine gifts an earlier generation was favoured.
Page 66
On the other path you will have but few fellow-travellers: it is more arduous, winding and precipitous; and those who take the first path will mock you, for your progress is more wearisome, and they will try to lure you over into their own ranks.
Page 67
' Even the very best of men now yield to these temptations: and it cannot be said that the deciding factor here is the degree of talent, or whether a man is accessible to these voices or not; but rather the degree and the height of a certain moral sublimity, the instinct towards heroism, towards sacrifice--and finally a positive, habitual need of culture, prepared by a proper kind of education, which education, as I have previously said, is first and foremost obedience and submission to the discipline of genius.
Page 75
Look at the free student, the herald of self-culture: guess what his instincts are; explain him from his needs! How does his culture appear to you when you measure it by three graduated scales: first, by his need for philosophy; second, by his instinct for art; and third, by Greek and Roman antiquity as the incarnate categorical imperative of all culture? "Man is so much encompassed about by the most serious and difficult problems that, when they are brought to his attention in the right way, he is impelled betimes towards a lasting kind of philosophical wonder, from which alone, as a fruitful soil, a deep and noble culture can grow forth.