The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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forced him upwards.

"_Pour 'la canaille' un dieu rémunérateur et vengeur_"--Voltaire.

The criticism of both standpoints in regard to the _value of
civilisation._ To Voltaire nothing seems finer than the _social
invention_: there is no higher goal than to uphold and perfect it.
_L'honnêteté_ consists precisely in respecting social usage; virtue
in a certain obedience towards various necessary "prejudices" which
favour the maintenance of society. _Missionary of Culture,_ aristocrat,
representative of the triumphant and ruling classes and their values.
But Rousseau remained a _plebeian,_ even as _hommes de lettres,_ this
was _preposterous_; his shameless contempt for everything that was not

The _morbid feature_ in Rousseau is the one which happens to have been
most admired and _imitated._ (Lord Byron resembled him somewhat, he
too screwed himself up to sublime attitudes and to revengeful rage--a
sign of vulgarity; later on, when Venice restored his equilibrium,
he understood what _alleviates most_ and does the _most good ...

In spite of his antecedents, Rousseau is proud of himself; but he is
incensed if he is reminded of his origin....

In Rousseau there was undoubtedly some brain trouble; in Voltaire--rare
health and lightsomeness. _The revengefulness of the sick_; his
periods of insanity as also those of his contempt of man, and of his

Rousseau's defence of _Providence_ (against Voltaire's Pessimism):
he _had need of_ God in order to be able to curse society and
civilisation; everything must be good _per se,_ because God had created
it; man _alone has corrupted man._ The "good man" as a man of Nature
was pure fantasy; but with the dogma of God's authorship he became
something probable and even not devoid of foundation.

_Romanticism_ à la _Rousseau_: passion ("the sovereign right of
passion"); "naturalness"; the fascination of madness (foolishness
reckoned as greatness); the senseless vanity of the weak; the
revengefulness of the masses elevated to the position of _justice_
("in politics, for one hundred years, the leader has always been this


_Kant_: makes the scepticism of Englishmen, in regard to the theory of
knowledge, _possible_ for Germans.

(1) By enlisting in its cause the interest of the German's religious
and moral needs: just as the new academicians used scepticism for the
same reasons, as a preparation for Platonism (_vide_ Augustine); just
as Pascal even used _moral_ scepticism in order to provoke (to justify)
the need of belief;

(2) By complicating and entangling it with scholastic flourishes in
view of making it more acceptable to the German's scientific taste in
form (for Locke and Hume, alone, were too illuminating, too clear--that
is to say, judged according to the German valuing instinct, "too

_Kant_: a poor psychologist and mediocre judge of human nature,

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Text Comparison with The Case of Wagner Complete Works, Volume 8

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It is taken for granted that the aspirations, the particular quality, the influence, and the method of an art like music, are matters quite distinct from the values and the conditions prevailing in the culture with which it is in harmony, and that however many Christian elements may be discovered in Wagnerian texts, Nietzsche had no right to raise æsthetic objections because he happened to entertain the extraordinary view that these Christian elements had also found their way into Wagnerian music.
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, impoverished_ life, the will to nonentity, great exhaustion.
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From the rule, that corruption is paramount, that corruption is a fatality,--not even a God can save music.
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And thus very gradually, I began to understand Epicurus, the opposite of a Dionysian Greek; and also the Christian who in fact is only a kind of Epicurean, and who, with his belief that "faith saves," carries the principle of Hedonism _as far as possible_--far beyond all intellectual honesty.
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I leave my loftiest duty to the end, and that is to thank Wagner and Schopenhauer publicly, and to make them as it were take sides against themselves.
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_(c)_ His intention of earning a living.
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--Thus the philologist himself is not the aim of philology.
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But that is exactly the case of the cask of the Danæ: and this is useless, we must again set about doing everything for ourselves, and only for ourselves--measuring science by ourselves, for example with the question: What is science to us? not: what are we to science? People really make life too easy for themselves when they look upon themselves from such a simple historical point of view, and make humble servants of themselves.
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59 In Wolf's estimation, a man has reached the highest point of historical research when he is able to take a wide and general view of the whole and of the profoundly conceived distinctions in the developments in art and the different styles of art.
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Likewise no Holy Writ.
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The beautiful man, the healthy, moderate, and enterprising man, moulds the objects around him into beautiful shapes after his own image.
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In addition to this, a more gentle spirit has become widespread, thanks to the period of illumination which has weakened mankind--but this weakness, when turned into morality, leads to good results and honours us.
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192 The better the state is organised, the duller will humanity be.