The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 39

culture, I have always had a feeling as of
_decline._ The fact that I learned to know a declining form of culture
has often made me _unfair_ towards the whole phenomenon of European
culture. The Germans always follow at some distance behind: they always
go to the root of things, for instance:--

Dependance upon foreigners; _Kant_--Rousseau, the sensualists, Hume,

_Schopenhauer_--the Indians and Romanticism, Voltaire.

_Wagner_--the French cult of the ugly and of grand opera, _Paris,_ and
the flight into _primitive barbarism_ (the marriage of brother and

The law of the _laggard_ (the provinces go to Paris, Germany goes to

How is it that precisely _Germans discovered the Greek_ (the more an
instinct is developed, the more it is _tempted_ to run for once into
its opposite).

Music is the last breath of every culture.


_Renaissance and Reformation._--What does the Renaissance prove? That
the reign of the "individual" can be only a short one. The output
is too great; there is not even the possibility of husbanding or of
capitalising forces, and exhaustion sets in step by step. These are
times when everything is _squandered,_ when even the strength itself
with which one collects, capitalises, and heaps riches upon riches,
_is squandered._ Even the opponents of such movements are driven to
preposterous extremes in the dissipation of their strength: and they
too are very soon exhausted, used up, and completely sapped.

In the Reformation we are face to face with a wild and plebeian
counterpart of the Italian Renaissance, generated by similar impulses,
except that the former, in the backward and still vulgar North, had to
assume a religious form--there the concept of a higher life had not yet
been divorced from that of a religious one.

Even the Reformation was a movement for individual liberty; "every one
his own priest" is really no more than a formula for _libertinage._
As a matter of fact, the words "Evangelical freedom" would have
sufficed--and all instincts which had reasons for remaining concealed
broke out like wild hounds, the most brutal needs suddenly acquired the
courage to show themselves, everything seemed justified ... men refused
to specify the kind of freedom they had aimed at, they preferred to
shut their eyes. But the fact that their eyes were closed and that
their lips were moistened with gushing orations, did not prevent their
hands from being ready to snatch at whatever there was to snatch at,
that the belly became the god of the "free gospel," and that all lusts
of revenge and of hatred were indulged with insatiable fury.

This lasted for a while: then exhaustion supervened, just as it
had done in Southern Europe;

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Text Comparison with The Will to Power, Book III and IV An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

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the sensual nature of artists (Aph.
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This is what I call _a lack of philological_ knowledge; to be able to read a text, _as such,_ without reading an interpretation into it, is the latest form of "inner experience,"--it is perhaps a barely possible form.
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But what is that much _older_ function called, which must have been active much earlier, and which in itself equalises unequal cases and makes them alike? What is that second function called, which with this first one as a basis, etc.
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(3) The opposite of this phenomenal world is not "the real world," but the amorphous and unadjustable world consisting of the chaos of sensations--that is to say, _another kind_ of phenomenal; world, a world which to us is "unknowable.
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"--It is from the senses that the greatest.
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To demand an _adequate means of expression is nonsense_: it lies at the heart of a language, of a medium of communication, to express _relation_ only.
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The next question, then, is: how did the illusion Being originate (why was it obliged to originate); Likewise: how was it that all valuations based upon the hypothesis that there was such a thing as Being came to be depreciated.
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_ 772.
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_" (3) _The compulsion to imitate:_ extreme irritability, by means of which a certain example becomes contagious--a condition is guessed and represented merely by means of a few signs.
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_The will to power.
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_" 938.
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He grows stronger under the misfortunes which threaten to annihilate him.
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Evil, in this respect, means hard, painful, enforced.
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--Readers will guess that the problem concerns the meaning of suffering; whether a Christian or a tragic meaning be given to it.
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If the universe may be conceived as a definite quantity of energy, as a definite number of centres of energy,--and every other concept remains indefinite and therefore useless,--it follows therefrom that the universe must go through a calculable number of combinations in the great game of chance which constitutes its existence.