mean that which
is the outcome of a _long period of activity in the same occupation_ on
the part of one family of men); the incapability of producing anything
perfect, is simply the result of this lack of instinct: one individual
alone cannot make up for the schooling his ancestors should have
transmitted to him.
What a morality or book of law creates: that deep instinct which
renders _automatism_ and perfection possible in life and in work.
But now we have reached the opposite point; yes, we wanted to reach
it--the most extreme consciousness, through introspection on the part
of man and of history: and thus we are practically most distant from
perfection in Being, doing, and willing: our desires--even our will
to knowledge--shows how prodigiously decadent we are. We are striving
after the very reverse of what _strong races_ and _strong natures_ will
have--understanding is an _end_....
That Science is possible in the way in which it is practised to-day,
proves that all elementary instincts, _the instincts which ward off
danger and protect life,_ are no longer active. We no longer save, we
are merely spending the capital of our forefathers, even in the way in
which we _pursue knowledge_.
_(a)_ In the _natural sciences_ ("purposelessness"), causality,
mechanism, "conformity to law," an interval, a remnant.
_(b)_ Likewise in _politics_: the individual lacks the belief in his
own right, innocence; falsehood rules supreme, as also the worship of
_(d)_ Likewise in _political economy_: the abolition of slavery: the
lack of a redeeming class, and of _one who justifies_--the rise of
_(d)_ Likewise in _history_: fatalism, Darwinism; the last attempts at
reconciling reason and Godliness fail. Sentimentality in regard to the
past: biographies can no longer be endured! (Phenomenalism even here:
character regarded as a mask; there are no facts.)
_(e)_ Likewise in _Art_: romanticism and its _counter-stroke_
(repugnance towards romantic ideals and lies). The latter, morally,
as a sense of greatest truthfulness, but pessimistic. Pure "artists"
(indifference as to the "subject"). (The psychology of the
father-confessor and puritanical psychology--two forms of psychological
romanticism: but also their counter-stroke, the attempt to maintain a
purely artistic attitude towards "men"--but even in this respect no one
dares to make the _opposite_ valuation.)
_Against_ the teaching of the influence of _environment_ and external
causes: the power coming from inside is infinitely _superior_;
much that appears like influence acting from without is merely the
subjection of environment to this inner power.
Precisely the same environment may be used and interpreted in opposite
ways: there are no facts. A genius is _not_ explained by such theories
"_Modernity_" regarded in the light of nutrition and digestion.
This problem of the value of pity and of the pity-morality (I am an opponent of the modern infamous emasculation of our emotions) seems at the first blush a mere isolated problem, a note of interrogation for itself; he, however, who once halts at this problem, and learns how to put questions, will experience what I experienced:--a new and immense vista unfolds itself before him, a sense of potentiality seizes him like a vertigo, every species of doubt, mistrust, and fear springs up, the belief in morality, nay, in all morality, totters,--finally a new demand voices itself.Page 5
I wished to direct him to the real _history of morality_, and to warn him, while there was yet time, against a world of English theories that culminated in _the blue vacuum of heaven_.Page 19
An inability to take seriously for any length of time their enemies, their disasters, their _misdeeds_--that is the sign of the full strong natures who possess a superfluity of moulding plastic force, that heals completely and produces forgetfulness: a good example of this in the modern world is Mirabeau, who had no memory for any insults and meannesses which were practised on him, and who was only incapable of forgiving because he forgot.Page 20
They enjoy there freedom from all social control, they feel that in the wilderness they can give vent with impunity to that tension which is produced by enclosure and imprisonment in the peace of society, they _revert_ to the innocence of the beast-of-prey conscience, like jubilant monsters, who perhaps come from a ghastly bout of murder, arson, rape, and torture, with bravado and a moral equanimity, as though merely some wild student's prank had been played, perfectly convinced that the poets have now an ample theme to sing and celebrate.Page 25
Will any one look a little into--right into--the mystery of how _ideals are manufactured_ in this world? Who has the courage to do it? Come! Here we have a vista opened into these grimy workshops.Page 30
Was it therewith over? Was that greatest of all antitheses of ideals thereby relegated _ad acta_ for all time? Or only postponed, postponed for a long time? May there not take place at some time or other a much more awful, much more carefully prepared flaring up of the old conflagration? Further! Should not one wish _that_ consummation with all one's strength?--will it one's self? demand it one's self? He who at this juncture begins, like my readers, to reflect, to think further, will have difficulty in coming quickly to a conclusion,--ground enough for me to come myself to a conclusion, taking it for granted that for some time past what I mean has been sufficiently clear, what I exactly _mean_ by that dangerous motto which is inscribed on the body of my last book: _Beyond Good and Evil_--at any rate that is not the same as "Beyond Good and Bad.Page 31
"GUILT," "BAD CONSCIENCE," AND THE LIKE.Page 40
Perhaps in those days (this is to solace the weaklings) pain did not hurt so much as it does nowadays: any physician who has treated negroes (granted that these are taken as representative of the prehistoric man) suffering from severe internal inflammations which would bring a European, even though he had the soundest constitution, almost to despair, would be in a position to come to this conclusion.Page 41
It was in just this spirit and no other, that at a later date the moral philosophers of Greece conceived the eyes of God as still.Page 42
Must not that philosophic invention, so audacious and so fatal, which was then absolutely new to Europe, the invention of "free will," of the absolute spontaneity of man in good and evil, simply have been made for the specific purpose of justifying the idea, that the interest of the gods in humanity and human virtue was _inexhaustible_? There would never on the stage of this free-will world be a dearth of really new, really novel and exciting situations, plots, catastrophes.Page 51
This makes it all the more permissible to eliminate one supposed utility, which passes, at any rate in the popular mind, for its most essential utility, and which is just what even now provides the strongest support for that faith in punishment which is nowadays for many reasons tottering.Page 53
But a spirit who is sure of himself speaks softly; he seeks secrecy, he lets himself be awaited, A philosopher is recognised by the fact that he shuns three brilliant and noisy things--fame, princes, and women: which is not to say that they do not come to him.Page 86
He who not only has his nose to smell with, but also has eyes and ears, he sniffs almost wherever he goes to-day an air something like that of a mad-house, the air of a hospital--I am speaking, as stands to reason, of the cultured areas of mankind, of every kind of "Europe" that there is in fact in the world.Page 98
The inevitable running up against this "innocence" everywhere constitutes the most distasteful feature of the somewhat dangerous business which a modern psychologist has to undertake: it is a part of our great danger--it is a road which perhaps leads us straight.Page 101
It was first in the hands of the priest, real artist that he was in the feeling of guilt, that it took shape--oh, what a shape! "Sin"--for that is the name of the new priestly version of the animal "bad-conscience" (the inverted cruelty)--has up to the present been the greatest event in the history of the diseased soul: in "sin" we find the most perilous and fatal masterpiece of religious interpretation.Page 113
" All this is to a high degree ascetic, but at the same time it is to a much greater degree _nihilistic_; make no mistake about this! You see in the historian a gloomy, hard, but determined gaze,ââan eye that _looks out_ as an isolated North Pole explorer looks out (perhaps so as not to look within, so as not to look back?)ââthere is snowââhere is life silenced, the last crows which caw here are called "whither?" "Vanity," "Nada"ââhere nothing more flourishes and grows, at the most the metapolitics of St.Page 114
Anacreon, and not merely to run away! To trample on all the worm-eaten "chairs," the cowardly contemplators, the lascivious eunuchs of history, the flirters with ascetic ideals, the righteous hypocrites of impotence! All reverence on my part to the ascetic ideal, _in so far as it is honourable_! So long as it believes in itself and plays no pranks on us! But I like not all these coquettish bugs who have an insatiate ambition to smell of the infinite, until eventually the infinite smells of bugs; I like not the whited sepulchres with their stagey reproduction of life; I like not the tired and the used up who wrap themselves in wisdom and look "objective"; I like not the agitators dressed up as heroes, who hide their dummy-heads behind the stalking-horse of an ideal; I like not the ambitious artists who would fain play the ascetic and the priest, and are at bottom nothing but tragic clowns; I like not, again, these newest speculators in idealism, the Anti-Semites, who nowadays roll their eyes in the patent Christian-Aryan-man-of-honour fashion, and by an abuse of moralist attitudes and agitation dodges, so cheap as to exhaust any patience, strive to excite all.Page 115
It is obvious that, in regard to this over-production, a new _trade_ possibility lies open; it is obvious that there is a new business to be done in little ideal idols and obedient "idealists"--don't pass over this tip! Who has sufficient courage? We have in _our hands_ the possibility of idealising the whole earth.Page 124