The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 178

of considering one's self a problem. Acoustic
hallucinations in Socrates: morbid element. When the intellect is
rich and independent, it most strongly resists preoccupying itself
with morality. How is it that Socrates is a _moral-maniac_?--Every
"practical" philosophy immediately steps into the foreground in times
of distress. When morality and religion become the chief interests of a
community, they are signs of a state of distress.


Intelligence, clearness, hardness, and logic as weapons against the_
wildness of the instincts_. The latter must be dangerous and must
threaten ruin, otherwise no purpose can be served by developing
_intelligence_ to this degree of tyranny. In order to make a _tyrant_
of intelligence the instincts must first have proved themselves
tyrants. This is the problem. It was a very timely one in those days.
Reason became virtue--virtue equalled happiness.

_Solution_: Greek philosophers stand upon the same fundamental fact
of their inner experiences as Socrates does; five feet from excess,
from anarchy and from dissolution--all decadent men. They regard him
as a doctor: Logic as will to power, as will to control self, as will
to "happiness." The wildness and anarchy of Socrates' instincts is a
_sign of decadence_, as is also the superfœtation of logic and clear
reasoning in him. Both are abnormities, each belongs to the other.
Criticism. Decadence reveals itself in this concern about "happiness"
(_i.e._ about the "salvation of the soul"; _i.e. to feel that one's
condition is a danger_). Its fanatical interest in "happiness" shows
the pathological condition of the subconscious self: it was a vital
interest. The _alternative_ which faced them all was: to be reasonable
or to perish. The morality of Greek philosophers shows that they felt
they were in danger.


_Why everything resolved itself into mummery.--_Rudimentary
psychology, which only considered the _conscious_ lapses of men (as
causes), which regarded "consciousness" as an attribute of the soul,
and which sought a will behind every action (_i.e._ an intention),
could only answer "_Happiness_" to the question: "_What does man
desire?_" (it was impossible to answer "Power," because that would have
been _immoral)_;--consequently behind all men's actions there is the
intention of attaining to happiness by means of them. Secondly: if man
as a matter of fact does not attain to happiness, why is it? Because he
mistakes the means thereto.--_What is the unfailing means of acquiring
happiness?_ Answer: _virtue._--Why virtue? Because virtue is supreme
rationalness, and rationalness makes mistakes in the choice of means
impossible: virtue in the form of _reason_ is the way to happiness.
Dialectics is the constant occupation of virtue, because it does away
with passion and intellectual cloudiness.

As a matter of fact, man does _not_ desire "happiness."

Last Page Next Page

Text Comparison with Thus Spake Zarathustra: A Book for All and None

Page 17
I love all who are like heavy drops falling one by one out of the dark cloud that lowereth over man: they herald the coming of the lightning, and succumb as heralds.
Page 19
After a while consciousness returned to the shattered man, and he saw Zarathustra kneeling beside him.
Page 35
And when they had walked a while together, Zarathustra began to speak thus: It rendeth my heart.
Page 49
" Injustice and filth cast they at the lonesome one: but, my brother, if thou wouldst be a star, thou must shine for them none the less on that account! And be on thy guard against the good and just! They would fain crucify those who devise their own virtue--they hate the lonesome ones.
Page 75
A hunger ariseth out of my beauty: I should like to injure those I illumine; I should like to rob those I have gifted:--thus do I hunger for wickedness.
Page 92
His disciples laughed, sure enough, at this talk; and one of them said even: "Sooner would I believe that Zarathustra hath taken the devil.
Page 95
And this is the discourse that Zarathustra spake when he awoke; his voice, however, came unto his disciples as from afar: Hear, I pray you, the dream that I dreamed, my friends, and help me to divine its meaning! A riddle is it still unto me, this dream; the meaning is hidden in it and encaged, and doth not yet fly above it on free pinions.
Page 133
MY taste,--rather would I live amongst thieves and perjurers.
Page 135
Page 146
How charming it is that there are words and tones; are not words and tones rainbows and seeming bridges 'twixt the eternally separated? To each soul belongeth another world; to each soul is every other soul a back-world.
Page 160
The soothsayer, however, did not heed Zarathustra's alarm, but listened and listened in the downward direction.
Page 165
In the true knowing-knowledge there is nothing great and nothing small.
Page 196
No one else have I found to-day potent enough for this.
Page 208
Uncomely goeth he through the world.
Page 209
--The ass, however, here brayed YE-A.
Page 210
" --"And thou," said Zarathustra, "thou bad old magician, what didst thou do! Who ought to believe any longer in thee in this free age, when THOU believest in such divine donkeyism? It was a stupid thing that thou didst; how couldst thou, a shrewd man, do such a stupid thing!" "O Zarathustra," answered the shrewd magician, "thou art right, it was a stupid thing,--it was also repugnant to me.
Page 219
Such chapters as "The Child with the Mirror", "In the Happy Isles", "The Grave-Song," "Immaculate Perception," "The Stillest Hour", "The Seven Seals", and many others, are almost utterly devoid of meaning to all those who do not know something of Nietzsche's life, his aims and his friendships.
Page 232
Page 240
Page 246
While still in his teens, he became acquainted with Wagner's music and grew passionately fond of it.