Fox was a dialectician, and so was Socrates.
As a dialectician a person has a merciless instrument in his hand:
he can play the tyrant with it; he compromises when he conquers. The
dialectician leaves it to his opponent to demonstrate that he is not an
idiot; he is made furious and helpless, while the dialectician himself
remains calm and still possessed of his triumphant reasoning powers--he
_paralyses_ his opponent's intellect.--The dialectician's irony is a
form of mob-revenge: the ferocity of the oppressed lies in the cold
knife-cuts of the syllogism....
In Plato, as in all men of excessive sensuality and wild fancies, the
charm of concepts was so great, that he involuntarily honoured and
deified the concept as a form of ideal. _Dialectical intoxication_: as
the consciousness of being able to exercise control over one's self by
means of it--as an instrument of the Will to Power.
_The problem of Socrates._--The two antitheses: the _tragic_ and the
_Socratic_ spirits--measured according to the law of Life.
To what extent is the Socratic spirit a decadent phenomenon? to what
extent are robust health and power still revealed by the whole attitude
of the scientific man, his dialectics, his ability, and his severity?
(the health of the _plebeian_; whose malice, _esprit frondeur,_
whose astuteness, whose rascally depths, are held in check by his
_cleverness_; the whole type is "ugly").
_Uglification_: self-derision, dialectical dryness, intelligence in
the form of a _tyrant_ against the "tyrant" (instinct). Everything in
Socrates is exaggeration, eccentricity, caricature; he is a buffoon
with the blood of Voltaire in his veins.
He discovers a new form of _agon_; he is the first fencing-master in
the superior classed of Athens; he stands for nothing else than the
_highest form of cleverness_: he calls it "virtue" (he regarded it as a
means of _salvation_; he did not choose to be _clever,_ cleverness was
_de rigueur_); the proper thing is to control one's self in suchwise
that one enters into a struggle _not_ with passions but with reasons
as one's weapons (Spinoza's stratagem--the unravelment of the errors
of passion);--it is desirable to discover how every one may be caught
once he is goaded into a passion, and to know how illogically passion
proceeds; self-mockery is practised in order to injure the very roots
of the _feelings of resentment._
It is my wish to understand which idiosyncratic states form a part of
the Socratic problem: its association of reason, virtue, and happiness.
With this absurd doctrine of the identity of these things it succeeded
_in charming_ the world: ancient philosophy could not rid itself of
Absolute lack of objective interest: hatred of science: the
FOULIS 13 & 15 FREDERICK STREET EDINBURGH: AND LONDON 1911 CONTENTS TWILIGHT OF THE IDOLS TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE PREFACE MAXIMS AND MISSILES THE PROBLEM OF SOCRATES "REASON" IN PHILOSOPHY HOW THE "TRUE WORLD" ULTIMATELY BECAME A FABLE MORALITY AS THE ENEMY OF NATURE THE FOUR GREAT ERRORS THE "IMPROVERS" OF MANKIND THINGS THE GERMANS LACK SKIRMISHES IN A WAR WITH THE ACT THINGS I OWE TO THE ANCIENTS THE ANTICHRIST ETERNAL RECURRENCE NOTES TO ZARATHUSTRA TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE _The Twilight of the Idols_ was written towards the end of the summer of 1888, its composition seems to have occupied only a few days,--so few indeed that, in _Ecce Homo_ (p.Page 6
A principle of neighbour-love.Page 18
On the other hand, it will be admitted with some reason, that on the soil from which Christianity grew, the idea of the "spiritualisation of passion" could not possibly have been conceived.Page 27
Wherever men try to trace responsibility home to anyone, it is the instinct of punishment and of the desire to judge which is active.Page 33
How much peevish ponderousness, paralysis, dampness, dressing-gown languor, and beer is there not in German intelligence! How is it really possible that young men who consecrate their whole lives to the pursuit of intellectual ends, should not feel within them the first instinct of intellectuality, the _self-preservative instinct of the intellect_--and should drink beer? The alcoholism of learned youths does not incapacitate them for becoming scholars--a man quite devoid of intellect may be a great scholar,--but it is a problem in every other respect.Page 36
This is the first preparatory schooling of intellectuality.Page 41
9 In this state a man enriches everything from out his own abundance: what he sees, what he wills, he sees distended, compressed, strong, overladen with power.Page 51
How much more valuable is a real man than any other man who is merely the phantom of desires, of dreams of stinks and of lies?--than any kind of ideal man? .Page 70
In him the culture "of the Sophists"--that is to say, the culture of realism, receives its most perfect expression: this inestimable movement in the midst of the moral and idealistic knavery of the Socratic Schools which was then breaking out in all directions.Page 78
Whoever has the blood of theologians in his veins, stands from the start in a false and dishonest position to all things.Page 86
As nihilistic religions, they are akin,--they are religions of decadence,--while each is separated from the other in the most extraordinary fashion.Page 87
_, the enfeeblement of the individual's interest--loss of ballast and of "egoism"), he combats by leading the spiritual interests as well imperatively back to the individual In Buddha's doctrine egoism is a duty: the thing which is above all necessary, _i.Page 91
to originality.Page 95
The case is of supreme interest: the small insurrectionary movement christened with the name of Jesus of Nazareth, is the Jewish instinct _over again,_--in other words, it is the sacerdotal instinct which can no longer endure the priest as a fact; it is the discovery of a kind of life even more fantastic than the one previously conceived, a vision of life which is even more unreal than that which the organisation of a church stipulates.Page 107
Alas! how prompt and sudden was the end of the gospel! Expiatory sacrifice for guilt, and indeed in its most repulsive and barbaric form,--the sacrifice of the _innocent_ for the sins of the guilty! What appalling Paganism!--For Jesus himself had done away with the concept "guilt,"--he denied any gulf between God and man, he _lived_ this unity between God and man, it was this that constituted _his_ "glad tidings.Page 122
In the very manner in which a martyr flings his little parcel of truth at the head of the world, such a low degree of intellectual honesty and such obtuseness in regard to the question "truth" makes itself felt, that one never requires to refute a martyr.Page 131
Absolute indifference to other people's opinions (because we know their weights and measures), but their opinions of themselves should be the subject of pity.Page 160