_conquest_: in obedience to this lust the
senses, memory, and the instincts, etc., were developed. The quickest
possible reduction of the phenomena, economy, the accumulation of spoil
from the world of knowledge (_i.e._ that portion of the world which has
been appropriated and made manageable)....
Morality is therefore such a curious science, because it is in the
highest degree _practical_: the purely scientific position, scientific
uprightness, is thus immediately abandoned, as soon as morality calls
for replies to its questions. Morality says: I _require_ certain
answers--reasons, arguments; scruples may come afterwards, or they may
not come at all.
"How must one act?" If one considers that one is dealing with a
supremely evolved type--a type which has been "dealt with" for
countless thousands of years, and in which everything has become
instinct, expediency, automatism, fatality, the _urgency_ of this moral
question seems rather funny.
"How must one act?" Morality has always been a subject of
misunderstanding: as a matter of fact, a certain species, which was
constituted to act in a certain way, wished to justify itself by
_making_ its norm paramount.
"How must one act?" this is not a cause, but an _effect._ Morality
follows, the ideal comes first....
On the other hand, the appearance of moral scruples (or in other
words, _the coming to consciousness of the values_ which guide action)
betray a certain _morbidness_; strong ages and people do not ponder
over their rights, nor over the principles of action, over instinct or
over reason. _Consciousness_ is a sign that the real morality--that
is to say, the certainty of instinct which leads to a definite
course of action--is going to the dogs.... Every time a new _world
of consciousness_ is created, the moralists are signs of a lesion,
of impoverishment and of disorganisation. Those who are _deeply
instinctive_ fear bandying words over duties: among them are found
pyrrhonic opponents of dialectics and of knowableness in general.... A
virtue is _refuted_ with a "for." ...
_Thesis_: The appearance of moralists belongs to periods when morality
_Thesis_: The moralist is a dissipator of moral instincts, however much
he may appear to be their restorer.
_Thesis_: That which really prompts the action of a moralist is not a
moral instinct, but the _instincts of decadence,_ translated into the
forms of morality (he regards the growing uncertainty of the instincts
_Thesis_: The _instincts of decadence_ which, thanks to moralists, wish
to become master of the instinctive morality of stronger races and
(1) The instincts of the weak and of the botched;
(2) The instincts of the exceptions, of the anchorites, of the
unhinged, of the abortions of quality or of the reverse;
And the latter is really the malignant reproach that Epicurus cast upon Plato: he was annoyed by the grandiose manner, the mise en scene style of which Plato and his scholars were masters--of which Epicurus was not a master! He, the old school-teacher of Samos, who sat concealed in his little garden at Athens, and wrote three hundred books, perhaps out of rage and ambitious envy of Plato, who knows! Greece took a hundred years to find out who the garden-god Epicurus really was.Page 10
But the way is open for new acceptations and refinements of the soul-hypothesis; and such conceptions as "mortal soul," and "soul of subjective multiplicity," and "soul as social structure of the instincts and passions," want henceforth to have legitimate rights in science.Page 14
A man who WILLS commands something within himself which renders obedience, or which he believes renders obedience.Page 19
CHAPTER II.Page 32
truth for every one--that which has hitherto been the secret wish and ultimate purpose of all dogmatic efforts.Page 34
But how often must he say despairingly to himself: "A single individual! alas, only a single individual! and this great forest, this virgin forest!" So he would like to have some hundreds of hunting assistants, and fine trained hounds, that he could send into the history of the human soul, to drive HIS game together.Page 36
This latter doubt is justified by the fact that one of the most regular symptoms among savage as well as among civilized peoples is the most sudden and excessive sensuality, which then with equal suddenness transforms into penitential paroxysms, world-renunciation, and will-renunciation, both symptoms perhaps explainable as disguised epilepsy? But nowhere is it MORE obligatory to put aside explanations around no other type has there grown such a mass of absurdity and superstition, no other type seems to have been more interesting to men and even to philosophers--perhaps it is time to become just a little indifferent here, to learn caution, or, better still, to look AWAY, TO GO AWAY--Yet in the background of the most recent philosophy, that of Schopenhauer, we find almost as the problem in itself, this terrible note of interrogation of the religious crisis and awakening.Page 38
--Later on, when the populace got the upper hand in Greece, FEAR became rampant also in religion; and Christianity was preparing itself.Page 43
Perhaps there has hitherto been no more effective means of beautifying man than piety, by means of it man can become so artful, so superficial, so iridescent, and so good, that his appearance no longer offends.Page 56
of ENGLISH instinct to hallow and begloom Sunday to such an extent that the Englishman unconsciously hankers for his week--and work-day again:--as a kind of cleverly devised, cleverly intercalated FAST, such as is also frequently found in the ancient world (although, as is appropriate in southern nations, not precisely with respect to work).Page 70
This is in the last instance a question of taste, if it has not really been a question of conscience.Page 77
Meanwhile, however, there grew up in his son that new kind of harder and more dangerous skepticism--who knows TO WHAT EXTENT it was encouraged just by his father's hatred and the icy melancholy of a will condemned to solitude?--the skepticism of daring manliness, which is closely related to the genius for war and conquest, and made its first entrance into Germany in the person of the great Frederick.Page 79
I insist upon it that people finally cease confounding philosophical workers, and in general scientific men, with philosophers--that precisely here one should strictly give "each his own," and not give those far too much, these far too little.Page 87
The very decided Yea and Nay of their palate, their promptly ready disgust, their hesitating reluctance with regard to everything strange, their horror of the bad taste even of lively curiosity, and in general the averseness of every distinguished and self-sufficing culture to avow a new desire, a dissatisfaction with its own condition, or an admiration of what is strange: all this determines and disposes them unfavourably even towards the best things of the world which are not their property or could not become their prey--and no faculty is more unintelligible to such men than just this historical sense, with its truckling, plebeian curiosity.Page 90
Supposing a statesman were to bring his people into the position of being obliged henceforth to practise 'high politics,' for which they were by nature badly endowed and prepared, so that they would have to sacrifice their old and reliable virtues, out of love to a new and doubtful mediocrity;--supposing a statesman were to condemn his people generally to 'practise politics,' when they have hitherto had something better to do and think about, and when in the depths of their souls they have been unable to free themselves from a prudent loathing of the restlessness, emptiness, and noisy wranglings of the essentially politics-practising nations;--supposing such a statesman were to stimulate the slumbering passions and avidities of his people, were to make a stigma out of their former diffidence and delight in aloofness, an offence out of their exoticism and hidden permanency, were to depreciate their most radical proclivities, subvert their consciences, make their minds narrow, and their tastes 'national'--what! a statesman who should do all this, which his people would have to do penance for throughout their whole future, if they had a future, such a statesman would be GREAT, would he?"--"Undoubtedly!" replied the other old patriot vehemently, "otherwise he COULD NOT have done it! It was mad perhaps to wish such a thing! But perhaps everything great has been just as mad at its commencement!"--"Misuse of words!" cried his interlocutor, contradictorily--"strong! strong! Strong and mad! NOT great!"--The old men had obviously become heated as they thus shouted their "truths" in each other's faces, but I, in my happiness and apartness, considered how soon a stronger one may become master of the strong, and also that there is a compensation for the intellectual superficialising of a nation--namely, in the deepening of another.Page 109
--One does not know--cannot know, the best that is in one.Page 116
They are akin, fundamentally akin, in all the heights and depths of their requirements; it is Europe, the ONE Europe, whose soul presses urgently and longingly, outwards and upwards, in their multifarious and boisterous art--whither? into a new light? towards a new sun? But who would attempt to express accurately what all these masters of new modes of speech could not express distinctly? It is certain that the same storm and stress tormented them, that they SOUGHT in the same manner, these last great seekers! All of them steeped in literature to their eyes and ears--the first artists of universal literary culture--for the most part even themselves writers, poets, intermediaries and blenders of the arts and the senses (Wagner, as musician is reckoned among painters, as poet among musicians, as artist generally among actors); all of them fanatics for EXPRESSION "at any cost"--I specially mention Delacroix, the nearest related to Wagner; all of them great discoverers in the realm of the sublime, also of the loathsome and dreadful, still greater discoverers in effect, in display, in the art of the show-shop; all of them talented far beyond their genius, out and out VIRTUOSI, with mysterious accesses to all that seduces, allures, constrains, and upsets; born enemies of logic and of the straight line, hankering after the strange, the exotic, the monstrous, the crooked, and the self-contradictory; as men, Tantaluses of the will, plebeian parvenus, who knew themselves to be incapable of a noble TEMPO or of a LENTO in life and action--think of Balzac, for instance,--unrestrained workers, almost destroying themselves by work; antinomians and rebels in manners,.Page 128
It is an ADDITIONAL instance of his egoism, this artfulness and self-limitation in intercourse with his equals--every star is a similar egoist; he honours HIMSELF in them, and in the rights which he concedes to them, he has no doubt that the exchange of honours and rights, as the ESSENCE of all intercourse, belongs also to the natural condition of things.Page 138
The genius of the heart,.