value,--only in this
sense are we pessimists,--that is to say, with the will to acknowledge
this transvaluation without reserve, and no longer, as heretofore, to
deceive ourselves and chant the old old story.
It is precisely in this way that we find the pathos which urges us to
seek for _new values._ In short: the world might have far more value
than we thought--we must get behind the _naÃ¯vetÃ© of our ideals,_ for
it is possible that, in our conscious effort to give it the highest
interpretation, we have not bestowed even a moderately just value upon
What has been _deified_? The valuing instinct inside the _community_
(that which enabled it to survive).
What has been _calumniated_? That which has tended to separate higher
men from their inferiors, the instincts which cleave gulfs and build
Causes effecting the _rise of Pessimism_:--
(1) The most powerful instincts and those which promised most for the
future have hitherto been _calumniated,_ so that life has a curse upon
(2) The growing bravery and the more daring mistrust on the part of man
have led him to discover the fact that _these instincts cannot be
cut adrift from life,_ and thus he turns to embrace life.
(3) Only the most _mediocre,_ who are not _conscious_ of this conflict,
prosper; the higher species fail, and as an example of degeneration
tend to dispose all hearts against them--on the other hand, there is
some indignation caused by the mediocre positing themselves as the end
and meaning of all things. No one can any longer reply to the question:
(4) Belittlement, susceptibility to pain, unrest, haste, and confusion
are steadily increasing--the materialisation of all these tendencies,
which is called "civilisation," becomes every day more simple, with
the result that, in the face of the monstrous machine, the individual
_despairs_ and _surrenders._
Modern Pessimism is an expression of the uselessness only of the
_modern_ world, not of the world and existence as such.
The "preponderance of _pain over pleasure"_ or the reverse (Hedonism);
both of these doctrines are already signposts to Nihilism....
For here, in both cases, no other final purpose is sought than the
phenomenon pleasure or pain.
But only a man who no longer dares to posit a will, a purpose, and a
final goal can speak in this way--according to every healthy type of
man, the worth of life is certainly not measured by the standard of
these secondary things. And a _preponderance_ of pain would be possible
and, _in spite of it,_ a mighty will, a _saying of yea_ to life, and a
holding of this preponderance for necessary.
"Life is not worth living"; "Resignation";
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