The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 169

he is told to do so, and because others have done so
before him.


422.

The superstition concerning _philosophers_: They are confounded with
men _of science._ As if the value of things were inherent in them
and required only to be held on to tightly! To what extent are their
researches carried on under the influence of values which already
prevail (their hatred of appearance of the body, etc.)? Schopenhauer
concerning morality (scorn of Utilitarianism). Ultimately the confusion
goes so far that Darwinism is regarded as philosophy, and thus at the
present day power has gone over to the men of _science._ Even Frenchmen
like Taine prosecute research, or mean to prosecute research,
_without_ being already in possession of a standard of valuation.
Prostration before "facts" of a kind of cult. As a matter of fact, they
_destroy_ the existing valuations.

The _explanation_ of this misunderstanding. The man who is able to
command is a rare phenomenon; he misinterprets himself. What one
_wants_ to do, above all, is to disclaim all authority and to attribute
it to _circumstances._ In Germany the critic's estimations belong to
the history of awakening _manhood._ Lessing, etc. (Napoleon concerning
Goethe). As a matter of fact, the movement is again made retrograde
owing to German romanticism: and the _fame_ of German philosophy
relies upon it as if it dissipated the danger of scepticism and could
_demonstrate faith._ Both tendencies culminate in Hegel: at bottom,
what he did was to generalise the fact of German criticism and the
fact of German romanticism,--a kind of dialectical fatalism, but to
the honour of intellectuality, with the actual submission of the
philosopher to reality. _The critic prepares the way_: that is all!

With Schopenhauer the philosopher's mission dawns; it is felt that
the object is to determine _values_; still under the dominion of
eudemonism. The ideal of Pessimism.


423.

_Theory and practice._--This is a pernicious distinction, as if there
were an _instinct of knowledge,_ which, without inquiring into the
utility or harmfulness of a thing, blindly charged at the truth; and
then that, apart from this instinct, there were the whole world of
_practical_ interests.

In contradiction of this, I try to show what instincts are active
behind all these _pure_ theorists,--and how the latter, as a whole,
under the dominion of their instincts, fatally make for something
which _to their minds_ is "truth," to their minds and _only_ to their
minds. The struggle between systems, together with the struggle between
epistemological scruples, is one which involves very special instincts
(forms of vitality, of decline, of classes, of races, etc.).

The so-called _thirst for knowledge_ may be traced to the _lust of
appropriation_ and of

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