The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 165

soon turned my back upon the meagre attempts
that have been made to describe the evolution of these feelings (by
English and German Darwinians).

How can Spinoza's position, his denial and repudiation of the moral
values, be explained? (It was the result of his Theodicy!)


411.

_Morality regarded as the highest form of protection._--Our world is
_either_ the work and expression (the _modus_) of God, in which case
it must be _in the highest degree perfect_ (Leibnitz's conclusion
...),--and no one doubted that he knew what perfection must be
like,--and then all evil can only be _apparent_ (Spinoza is _more
radical,_ he says this of good and evil), or it must be a part of God's
high purpose (a consequence of a particularly great mark of favour
on God's part, who thus allows man to choose between good and evil:
the privilege of being no automaton; "freedom," with the ever-present
danger of making a mistake and of choosing wrongly.... See Simplicius,
for instance, in the commentary to Epictetus).

_Or_ our world is imperfect; evil and guilt are real, determined, and
are absolutely inherent to its being; in that case it cannot be the
_real_ world: consequently knowledge can only be a way of denying
the world, for the latter is error which may be recognised as such.
This is Schopenhauer's opinion, based upon Kantian first principles.
Pascal was still more desperate: he thought that even knowledge must be
corrupt and false--that _revelation_ is a necessity if only in order to
recognise that the world should be denied....


412.

Owing to our habit of believing in unconditional authorities, we have
grown to feel a profound need for them: indeed, this feeling is so
strong that, even in an age of criticism such as Kant's was, it showed
itself to be superior to the need for criticism, and, in a certain
sense, was able to subject the whole work of critical acumen, and to
convert it to its own use. It proved its superiority once more in
the generation which followed, and which, owing to its historical
instincts, naturally felt itself drawn to a relative view of all
authority, when it converted even the Hegelian philosophy of evolution
(history rechristened and called philosophy) to its own use, and
represented history as being the self-revelation and self-surpassing
of moral ideas. Since Plato, philosophy has lain under the dominion of
morality. Even in Plato's predecessors, moral interpretations play a
most important rôle (Anaximander declares that all things are made to
perish as a punishment for their departure from pure being; Heraclitus
thinks that the regularity of phenomena is a proof of the morally
correct character of

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