_Evolution of man._ A. He tried to attain to a certain power
over Nature and over himself. (Morality was necessary in
order to make man triumph in his struggle with Nature and
B. If power over Nature has been attained, this power can
be used as a help in our development: Will to Power as a
self-enhancing and self-strengthening principle.
Morality may be regarded as the _illusion of a species,_ fostered with
the view of urging the individual to sacrifice himself to the future,
and seemingly granting him such a very great value, that with that
_self-consciousness_ he may tyrannise over, and constrain, other sides
of his nature, and find it difficult to be pleased with himself.
We ought to be most profoundly thankful for what morality has done
hitherto: _but now it is no more than a burden_ which may prove fatal.
_Morality itself_ in the form of honesty urges us to deny morality.
To what extent is the _self-destruction of morality_ still a sign of
its own strength? We Europeans have within us the blood of those who
were ready to die for their faith; we have taken morality frightfully
seriously, and there is nothing which we have not, at one time,
sacrificed to it. On the other hand, our intellectual subtlety has
been reached essentially through the vivisection of our consciences.
We do not yet know the "whither" towards which we are urging our
steps, now that we have departed from the soil of our forebears. But
it was on this very soil that we acquired the strength which is now
driving us from our homes in search of adventure, and it is thanks
to that strength that we are now in mid-sea, surrounded by untried
possibilities and things undiscovered--we can no longer choose, we must
be conquerors, now that we have no land in which we feel at home and
in which we would fain "survive." A concealed "_yea_" is driving us
forward, and it is stronger than all our "nays." Even our _strength_ no
longer bears with us in the old swampy land: we venture out into the
open, we attempt the task. The world is still rich and undiscovered,
and even to perish were better than to be half-men or poisonous men.
Our very strength itself urges us to take to the sea; there where all
suns have hitherto sunk we know of a new world....
CRITICISM OF PHILOSOPHY.
1. GENERAL REMARKS.
We would serve history only so far as it serves life; but to value its study beyond a certain point mutilates and degrades life: and this is a fact that certain marked symptoms of our time make it as necessary as it may be painful to bring to the test of experience.Page 5
One who wished to feel everything historically, would be like a man forcing himself to refrain from sleep, or a beast who had to live by chewing a continual cud.Page 10
Every other living thing cries no.Page 11
The common man snatches greedily at this little span, with tragic earnestness, but they, on their way to monumental history and immortality, knew how to greet it with Olympic laughter, or at least with a lofty scorn; and they went down to their graves in irony--for what had they to bury? Only what they had always treated as dross, refuse, and vanity, and which now falls into its true home of oblivion, after being so long the sport of their contempt.Page 15
He greets the soul of his people from afar as his own, across the dim and troubled centuries: his gifts and his virtues lie in such power of feeling and divination, his scent of a half-vanished trail, his instinctive correctness in reading the scribbled past, and understanding at once its palimpsests--nay, its polypsests.Page 23
" But to what means can he look? What remains to him now but his knowledge? He hopes to plant the feeling of a need, by speaking from the breadth of that knowledge, giving it freely with both hands.Page 29
Such imagination has certainly more danger in it than the contrary madness of a positive vice.Page 35
If you set a great aim before your eyes, you control at the same time the itch for analysis that makes the present into a desert for you, and all rest, all peaceful growth and ripening, impossible.Page 44
Annihilation follows their halting walk on tiptoe through life.Page 62
This is a parable for each one.Page 80
And one can perish of this solitude as well as of the fear of it, of one's self as well as one's self-sacrifice, of both aspiration and petrifaction: and to live is ever to be in danger.Page 87
Goethe's man is a conciliatory and conservative spirit, though in danger of degenerating into a Philistine, just as Rousseau's man may easily become a Catiline.Page 89
His memory remains, and will be reverenced as a hero's; his will, that has been mortified all his life by toiling and struggling, by evil payment and ingratitude, is absorbed into Nirvana.Page 98
He cannot rest here either, but must go higher.Page 99
Its aim would be to make "current" men, in the same sense as one speaks of the "currency" in money; and in their view, the more "current" men there are, the happier the people.Page 103
Science has the same relation to wisdom as current morality to holiness: she is cold and dry, loveless, and ignorant of any deep feeling of dissatisfaction and yearning.Page 105
Fourthly, a lack of feeling, which makes him capable of vivisection.Page 121
They wanted to have a little physical knowledge at their back, possibly in the form of empirical psychology (like the Herbartians), or perhaps a little history; and then they could at least make a public show of behaving scientifically, although in their hearts they may wish all philosophy and all science at the devil.Page 124
Brutus shows its dignity better than Plato; his was a time when ethics cease to have commonplaces.Page 125