of the "mediocre").
Thus in the _history of morality_ a _will to power_ finds expression,
by means of which, either the slaves, the oppressed, the bungled and
the botched, those that suffer from themselves, or the mediocre,
attempt to make those valuations prevail which favour _their_ existence.
From a biological standpoint, therefore, the phenomenon Morality is of
a highly suspicious nature. Up to the present, morality has developed
at the _cost_ of: the ruling classes and their specific instincts,
the well-constituted and _beautiful_ natures, the independent and
privileged classes in all respects.
Morality, then, is a sort of counter-movement opposing Nature's
endeavours to arrive at a _higher type._ Its effects are: mistrust of
life in general (in so far as its tendencies are felt to be immoral),
--hostility towards the senses (inasmuch as the highest values are
felt to be opposed to the higher instincts),--Degeneration and
self-destruction of "higher natures," because it is precisely in them
that the conflict becomes _conscious._
_Which values have been paramount hitherto?_
Morality as the leading value in all phases of philosophy (even with
the Sceptics). Result: this world is no good, a "true world" must exist
What is it that here determines the highest value? What, in sooth,
is morality? The instinct of decadence; it is the exhausted and
the disinherited who _take their revenge_ in this way and play the
Historical proof: philosophers have always been decadents and always in
the pay of Nihilistic religions.
The instinct of decadence appears as the will to power. The
introduction of its system of means: its means are absolutely immoral.
General aspect: the values that have been highest hitherto have been a
special instance of the will to power; morality itself is a particular
instance of _immorality._
Why the Antagonistic Values always succumbed.
1. How was this actually _possible!_ Question: why did life and
physiological well-constitutedness succumb everywhere? Why was there no
affirmative philosophy, no affirmative religion?
The historical signs of such movements: the pagan religion.
Dionysos _versus_ the Christ. The Renaissance. Art.
2. The strong and the weak: the healthy and the sick; the exception and
the rule. There is no doubt as to who is the stronger....
_General view of history_; Is man an _exception_ in the history of life
on this account?--An objection to _Darwinism._ The means wherewith
the weak succeed in ruling have become: instincts, "humanity,"
3. The proof of this rule on the part of the weak is to be found in
our political instincts, in our social values, in our arts, and in our
The _instincts of decadence_ have become master of the _instincts
"Man" involuntarily presents himself to them as an aeterna veritas as a passive element in every hurly-burly, as a fixed standard of things.Page 8
Accordingly, historical philosophising is henceforth indispensable, and with it honesty of judgment.Page 9
He deceives himself because these things have power to make him so happy and so wretched, and so he evinces, in this respect, the same conceit that characterises astrology.Page 11
He really supposed.Page 14
Dreams carry us back to the earlier stages of human culture and afford us a means of understanding it more clearly.Page 15
But deep thought can nevertheless be very widely sundered from truth, as for instance every metaphysical thought.Page 16
This process is generally looked upon as affording the all sufficient explanation of the world of phenomena.Page 27
in view, but isolated portions of it.Page 30
Without such practical acquaintance, one is apt to look upon this making and forming as a much easier thing than it really is; one is not keenly enough alive to the felicity and the charm of success.Page 32
At first single actions are termed good or bad without any reference to their motive, but solely because of the utilitarian or prejudicial consequences they have for the community.Page 39
=--In all great deceivers one characteristic is prominent, to which they owe their power.Page 50
Thus arises a sort of equalization principle upon the basis of which a law can be established.Page 51
He is called good because he is good "to some purpose," and as benevolence, sympathy, considerateness, moderation and the like come, in the general course of conduct, to be finally recognized as "good to some purpose" (as utilitarian) the benevolent man, the helpful man, is duly styled "good".Page 52
The tradition finally becomes holy and inspires awe.Page 58
imagination, feel pain also.Page 68
Man thinks well of himself when he gives himself such gods and places himself in a relationship akin to that of the lower nobility with the higher; whereas the Italian races have a decidedly vulgar religion, involving perpetual anxiety because of bad and mischievous powers and soul disturbers.Page 70
=--Christianity arose to lighten the heart, but now it must first make the heart heavy in order to be able to lighten it afterwards.Page 75
If he formerly saw in every event merely warnings, threats, punishments and every kind of indication of divine anger, he now reads into his experiences the grace of god.Page 78
Therefore, at bottom even such acts of self-abnegation are not moral inasmuch as they are not done with a strict regard for others.Page 82
Very soon the saint turns upon himself that severity that is so closely allied to the instinct of domination at any price and which inspire even in the most solitary individual the sense of power.