after the old style, may be
derived from it.
_(d)_ There is an attempt to read the phenomena of life in such a
way as to arrive _at the divine guidance of old,_ with its powers
of rewarding, punishing, educating, and of generally conducing to a
something _better_ in the order of things.
_(e)_ People once more believe in good and evil; so that the victory of
the good and the annihilation of the evil is regarded as a _duty_ (this
is English, and is typical of that blockhead, John Stuart Mill).
(f) The contempt felt for "naturalness," for the desires and for the
ego: the attempt to regard even the highest intellectuality of art as a
result of an impersonal and disinterested attitude.
(g) The Church is still allowed to meddle in all the essential
occurrences and incidents in the life of the individual, with a view to
consecrating it and giving it a _loftier_ meaning: we still have the
"Christian State" and the "Christian marriage."
There have been more thoughtful and more destructively thoughtful
times than ours: times like those in which Buddha appeared, for
instance, in which the people themselves, after centuries of sectarian
quarrels, had sunk so deeply into the abyss of philosophical dogmas,
as, from time to time, European people have done in regard to the fine
points of religious dogma. "Literature" and the press would be the last
things to seduce one to any high opinion of the spirit of our times:
the millions of Spiritists, and a Christianity with gymnastic exercises
of that ghastly ugliness which is characteristic of all English
inventions, throw more light on the subject.
European _Pessimism_ is still in its infancy--a fact which argues
against it: it has not yet attained to that prodigious and yearning
fixity of sight to which it attained in India once upon a time, and
in which nonentity is reflected; there is still too much of the
"ready-made," and not enough of the "evolved" in its constitution, too
much learned and poetic Pessimism; I mean that a good deal of it has
been discovered, invented, and "created," but not caused.
[Footnote 4: _zerdachtere_.]
Criticism of the Pessimism which has prevailed hitherto. The want of
the eudÃ¦monological standpoint, as a last abbreviation of the question:
what is the _purpose_ of it all? The reduction of gloom.
_Our_ Pessimism: the world has not the value which we believed it to
have,--our faith itself has so increased our instinct for research that
we are _compelled_ to say this to-day. In the first place, it seems of
less value: _at first it is felt_ to be of less
For those who are thus bound the great emancipation comes suddenly, like an earthquake; the young soul is all at once convulsed, unloosened and extricated--it does not itself know what is happening.Page 15
But in dreams we all resemble the savage; bad recognition and erroneous comparisons are the reasons of the bad conclusions, of which we are guilty in dreams: so that, when we clearly recollect what we have dreamt, we are alarmed at ourselves at harbouring so much foolishness within us.Page 29
If, in all that he does, he considers the final aimlessness of man, his own activity assumes in his eyes the character of wastefulness.Page 39
Thus the thirst for pity is the thirst for self-gratification, and that, moreover, at the expense of his fellow-men; it shows man in the whole inconsiderateness of his own dear self, but not exactly in his "stupidity," as La Rochefoucauld thinks.Page 41
to preserve or defend themselves, to prevent personal injury; they lie where cunning and dissimulation are the right means of self-preservation.Page 60
To recognise all this may be deeply painful, but consolation comes after; such pains are the pangs of birth.Page 62
THE TRUTH IN RELIGION.Page 104
GESTURE AND SPEECH.Page 108
Since that time the modern spirit, with its restlessness and its hatred of moderation and restrictions, has obtained the mastery on all sides, let loose at first by the fever of revolution, and then once more putting a bridle on itself when it became filled with fear and horror at itself,--but it was the bridle of rigid logic, no longer that of artistic moderation.Page 114
to bring forward his reasons against bigamy and then it will be seen whether his holy zeal in favour of monogamy is based upon reason or upon custom.Page 121
--Interest in Education will acquire great strength only from the moment when belief in a God and His care is renounced, just as the art of healing you only flourish when the belief in miracle-cures ceased.Page 133
Finally, it is the axe which is laid to the root of a delicate sense of language in our mother-tongue, which thereby is incurably injured and destroyed.Page 137
But such an edifice of culture in the single individual will bear a great resemblance to the culture of entire periods, and will afford consecutive analogical teaching concerning it.Page 138
THE HIGHER CULTURE IS NECESSARILY MISUNDERSTOOD.Page 163
A VOLUNTARY VICTIM.Page 167
Now wherever commanding is the business of the day (as in the great world of commerce and industry), there results something similar to these families of good blood, only the noble bearing in obedience is lacking which is an inheritance from feudal conditions and hardly grows any longer in the climate of our culture.Page 171
The one State, therefore, desires to muddle millions of minds of another State in order to gain advantage thereby.Page 187
A GLOOMY THOUGHT.