_very probably right in
supposing that Truth_ and _the will to truth_ are perhaps something
quite different and only _disguises._ (The need of _faith_ is the
greatest obstacle in the way of truthfulness.)
"Thou shalt not tell a falsehood": people insist upon truthfulness. But
the acknowledgment of facts (the refusal to allow one's self to be lied
to) has always been greatest with liars: they actually recognised the
reality of this popular "truthfulness." There is too much or too little
being said continually: to insist upon people's _exposing themselves_
with every word they say, is a piece of naÃ¯vetÃ©.
People say what they think, they are "truthful"; but _only under
certain circumstances_: that is to say, provided they be _understood_
(_inter pares_), and understood with good will into the bargain (_once
more inter pares_). One conceals one's self in the presence of the
_unfamiliar_: and he who would attain to something, says what he would
fain have people think about him, but _not_ what he thinks. ("The
powerful man is always a liar.")
The great counterfeit coinage of Nihilism concealed beneath an artful
abuse of moral values:--
_(a)_ Love regarded as self-effacement; as also pity.
_(b)_ The _most impersonal intellect_ ("the philosopher") can know the
_truth_, "the true essence and nature of things."
_(c)_ Genius, _great men_ are _great,_ because they do not strive
to further their own interests: the _value_ of man _increases_ in
proportion as he effaces himself.
_(d)_ Art as the work of the "_pure free-willed subject_";
misunderstanding of "objectivity."
_(e)_ Happiness as the object of life: _virtue_ as a means to an end.
The pessimistic condemnation of life by Schopenhauer is a _moral_ one.
Transference of the gregarious standards into the realm of metaphysics.
The "individual" lacks sense, he must therefore have his origin in "the
thing in itself" (and the significance of his existence must be shown
to be "error"); parents are only an "accidental cause."--The mistake
on the part of science in considering the individual as the result of
all past life instead of the epitome of all past life, is now becoming
1. Systematic _falsification of history,_ so that it may present a
proof of the moral valuation:
_(a)_ The decline of a people and corruption. _(b)_ The rise of a
people and virtue. _(c)_ The zenith of a people ("its culture")
regarded as the result of high moral excellence.
2. Systematic falsification of _great men, great creators,_ and _great
periods._ The desire is to make _faith_ that which distinguishes great
men: whereas carelessness in this respect, scepticism, "immorality,"
the right to repudiate a belief, belongs to greatness (CÃ¦sar, Frederick
the Great, Napoleon; but also Homer, Aristophanes,
(The remedy: militarism, for instance, from Napoleon onwards, who regarded civilisation as his natural enemy.Page 33
(The psychology of the father-confessor and puritanical psychology--two forms of psychological romanticism: but also their counter-stroke, the attempt to maintain a purely artistic attitude towards "men"--but even in this respect no one dares to make the _opposite_ valuation.Page 40
A decided belief in oneself.Page 42
"Utopia," the "ideal man," the deification of Nature, the vanity of making one's own personality the centre of interest, subordination to the propaganda of _social ideas,_ charlatanism--all this we derive from the eighteenth century.Page 44
_Romanticism_ Ã la _Rousseau_: passion ("the sovereign right of passion"); "naturalness"; the fascination of madness (foolishness reckoned as greatness); the senseless vanity of the weak; the revengefulness of the masses elevated to the position of _justice_ ("in politics, for one hundred years, the leader has always been this invalid").Page 53
(4) Increasing _cleanliness_ and wholesomeness in the home.Page 64
In pagan cultures it is around the interpretation of the great annual cycles that the religious cult turns; in Christianity it is around a cycle of _paralytic phenomena.Page 83
What a terrible glow of false colouring here floods the meanest virtues--as though they were the reflection of divine qualities! The _natural_ purpose and utility of every virtue is systematically _hushed up_; it can only be valuable in the light of a _divine_ command or model, or in the light of the good which belongs to a beyond or a spiritual world.Page 87
He forbids His disciples to defend Him; He calls attention to the fact that He could get help if He wished to, but _will_ not.Page 90
In this respect, one has only to think of Saint Theresa, surrounded by the heroic instincts of her brothers:--Christianity appears in those circumstances as a dissipation of the will, as strength of will, as a will that is Quixotic.Page 98
Even the fulfilment of the requirement must be presented in the coarsest way possible, so that it may command respect, as in the case of the spiritualisation of the Brahmins.Page 102
Problem: with what kind of means could one lead up to a severe form of really contagious Nihilism--a Nihilism which would teach and practise voluntary death with scientific conscientiousness (and not the feeble continuation of a vegetative sort of life with false hopes of a life after death)? Christianity cannot be sufficiently condemned for having depreciated the _value_ of a great _cleansing_ Nihilistic movement (like the one which was probably in the process of formation), by its teaching of the immortality of the private individual, as also by the hopes of resurrection which it held out: that is to say, by dissuading people from performing the _deed of Nihilism_ which is suicide.Page 115
In the middle, fear ceases: here a man is alone with nothing; here there is not much room even for misunderstandings; here there is equality; here a man's individual existence is not felt as a reproach, but as the _right_ existence; here contentment reigns supreme.Page 146
Man is an indifferent egoist: even the cleverest regards his habits as more important than his advantage.Page 164
Fundamental aspect: Kant's, Hegel's, Schopenhauer's, the sceptical and epochistical, the historifying and the pessimistic attitudes--all have a _moral_ origin.Page 186
Against the second tendency I put my question: whether we know another method of acting correctly, besides that of thinking correctly; the last case _is_ action, the first presupposes thought Are we possessed of a means whereby we can judge of the value of a method of life differently from the value of a theory: through induction or comparison?.Page 193
Under "Spiritual freedom" I understand something very definite: it is a state in which one is a hundred times superior to philosophers and other disciples of "truth" in one's severity towards one's self, in one's uprightness, in one's courage, and in one's absolute will to say nay even when it is dangerous to say nay.