The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 137

Christian morality. We should collect passages from
the poets in order to see _what_ they admired, in lofty mountains, for
instance. What Goethe had to do with them--why he admired Spinoza.
Absolute _ignorance_ concerning the reasons of this _cult...._

The _insipid and cowardly concept "Man"_ à la Comte and Stuart
Mill, is at times the subject of a cult.... This is only the
Christian moral ideal again under another name.... Refer also to the
freethinkers--Guyau for example.

The _insipid and cowardly concept "Art"_ which is held to mean sympathy
with all suffering and with everything botched and bungled (the same
thing happens to _history,_ cf. Thierry): again it is the cult of the
Christian moral ideal.

And now, as to the whole _socialistic ideal_: it is nothing but a
blockheaded misunderstanding of the Christian moral ideal.


341.

_The origin of the ideal._ The examination of the soil out of which it
grows.

_A._ Starting out from those "æsthetic" mental states during which the
world seems rounder, fuller, and _more perfect_: we have the pagan
ideal with its dominating spirit of self-affirmation (_people give of
their abundance_). The highest type: the _classical_ ideal--regarded
as an expression of the successful nature of _all_ the more important
instincts. In this classical ideal we find _the grand style_ as the
highest style. An expression of the "will to power" itself. The
instinct which is most feared _dares to acknowledge itself._

_B._ Starting out from the mental states in which the world seemed
emptier, paler, and thinner, when "spiritualisation" and the absence
of sensuality assume the rank of perfection, and when all that is
brutal, animal, direct, and proximate is avoided (_people calculate
and select_): the "sage," "the angel"; priestliness = virginity =
ignorance, are the physiological ideals of such idealists: the _anæmic_
ideal. Under certain circumstances this anæmic ideal may be the ideal
of such natures as _represent_ paganism (thus Goethe sees his "saint"
in Spinoza).

_C._ Starting out from those mental states in which the world seemed
more absurd, more evil, poorer, and more deceptive, an ideal cannot
even be imagined or desired in it (_people deny and annihilate_);
the projection of the ideal into the sphere of the anti-natural,
anti-actual, anti-logical; the state of him who judges thus (the
"impoverishment" of the world as a result of suffering: _people take,
they no longer bestow_): the _anti-natural ideal._

(The _Christian ideal_ is a _transitional form_ between the second
and the third, now inclining more towards the former type, and anon
inclining towards the latter.)

_The three ideals: A._ Either a _strengthening_ of Life (_paganism,_)
or _B._ an _impoverishment_ of Life (_anæmia_), or _C._ a _denial_ of
Life (_anti-naturalism_). The

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Text Comparison with The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

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_A.
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