And thus everything that lowers and
belittles man is elevated to an _ideal_.
A desire _magnifies_ the thing desired; and by not being realised it
grows--the _greatest ideas_ are those which have been created by the
strongest and longest desiring. Things grow _ever more valuable_ in our
estimation, the more our desire for them increases: if "moral values"
have become the highest values, it simply shows that the moral ideal
is the one which has been _realised least_ (and thus it _represented
the Beyond to all suffering,_ as a road to _blessedness_). Man,
with ever-increasing ardour, has only been embracing _clouds_: and
ultimately called his desperation and impotence "God."
Think of the _naÃ¯vetÃ©_ of all ultimate "desiderata"--when the
"wherefore" of man remains unknown.
What is the counterfeit coinage of morality? First of all we should
know what "good and evil" mean. That is as good as wishing to know why
man is here, and what his goal or his destiny is. And that means that
one would fain know that man actually _has_ a goal or a destiny.
The very obscure and arbitrary notion that humanity has a general
duty to perform, and that, as a whole, it is striving towards a
goal, is still in its infancy. Perhaps we shall once more be rid
of it before it becomes a "fixed idea." ... But humanity does not
constitute a whole: it is an indissoluble multiplicity of ascending
and descending organisms--it knows no such thing as a state of youth
followed by _maturity_ and then age. But its strata lie confused and
superimposed--and in a few thousand years there may be even younger
types of men than we can point out to-day. Decadence, on the other
hand, belongs to all periods of human history: everywhere there is
refuse and decaying matter, such things are in themselves vital
processes; for withering and decaying elements must be eliminated.
Under the empire of Christian prejudice _this question was never put
at all_: the purpose of life seemed to lie in the salvation of the
individual soul; the question whether humanity might last for a long or
a short time was not considered. The best Christians longed for the end
to come as soon as possible;--concerning the needs of the individual,
_there seemed to be no doubt whatsoever._ ... The duty of every
individual for the present was identical with what it would be in any
sort of future for the man of the future: the value, the purpose, the
limit of values was for ever fixed, unconditioned, eternal, one with
God.... What deviated from this eternal type was impious, diabolic,
_The phenomenalism of the "inner world!" A chronological inversion takes place,_ so that the cause reaches consciousness as the effect.Page 26
It believes rather that it actually perceives such a case; it works on the hypothesis that there are such things as identical cases.Page 33
The false fundamental observation is this, that I believe it is I who does something, who suffers something, who "has" something, who "has" a quality.Page 35
" But.Page 36
We are then rid of _materiality.Page 40
"The thing affects a subject?" Thus the root of the idea of substance is in language, not in things outside ourselves! The thing-in-itself is not a problem at all! Being will have to be conceived as a sensation which is no longer based upon anything quite devoid of sensation.Page 62
_ It does not lie within our power to alter our means of expression: it is possible to understand to what extend they are but symptomatic.Page 83
The _fundamental errors_ of the biologists who have lived hitherto: it is not a matter of the species, but of rearing stronger individuals (the many are only a means).Page 86
" .Page 99
_--There are only immoral intentions and actions; the so-called moral actions must be shown to be immoral.Page 132
--And how clever it is to be a little off your head at times! There are some realities which we cannot admit even to ourselves: especially when; we are women and have all sorts of feminine, _"pudeurs.Page 141
The contrast of a true and of an apparent world is entirely absent here: there is but one world, and it is false, cruel, contradictory, seductive, and without sense.Page 162
_ It was the appalling barbarity of morality which was principally responsible in the Middle Ages for the compulsory recourse to a veritable "league _of_ virtue"--and this was coupled with an equally appalling exaggeration of all that which constitutes the value of man.Page 165
_ 879.Page 168
To learn something which you don't care a fig about, and to find precisely your "duty" in this "objective" activity; to learn to value happiness and duty as things apart; this is the invaluable task and performance of higher schools.Page 196
" What they did not sufficiently understand, however, was the nature of favourable circumstances.