The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 108

values to hand, and that they no longer contain
any creative power--the fundamental principle: "the condition of
existence" is now quite divorced from the moral values. It is much
more superfluous and not nearly so painful. It becomes an _arbitrary_
matter. Chaos.

Who creates _the goal_ which stands above mankind kind and above the
individual? Formerly morality was a _preservative_ measure: but nobody
wants to _preserve_ any longer, there is nothing to preserve. Thus we
are reduced to an _experimental morality,_ each must _postulate_ a goal
for himself.


261.

What is the _criterion_ of a moral action? (1) Its disinterestedness,
(2) its universal acceptation, etc. But this is parlour-morality. Races
must be studied and observed, and, in each case, the criterion must be
discovered, as also the thing it expresses: a belief such as: "This
particular attitude or behaviour belongs to the principal condition of
our existence." Immoral means "that which brings about ruin." Now all
societies in which these principles were discovered have met with their
ruin: a few of these principles have been used and used again, because
every newly established community required them; this was the case, for
instance, with "Thou shalt not steal." In ages when people could not be
expected to show any marked social instinct (as, for instance, in the
age of the Roman Empire) the latter was, religiously speaking, directed
towards the idea of "spiritual salvation," or, in philosophical
parlance, towards "the greatest happiness." For even the philosophers
of Greece did not feel any more for their πολις.


262.

_The necessity of false values._--A judgment may be refuted when it is
shown that it was conditioned: but the necessity of retaining it is
not thereby cancelled. Reasons can no more eradicate false values than
they can alter astigmatism in a man's eyes.

The need of their _existence_ must be understood: they are the _result_
of causes which have nothing to do with reasoning.


263.

To _see_ and _reveal_ the problem of morality seems to me to be the new
task and the principal thing of all. I deny that this has been done by
moral philosophies heretofore.


264.

How false and deceptive men have always been concerning the fundamental
facts of their inner world! Here to have no eye; here to hold one's
tongue, and here to open one's mouth.


265.

There seems to be no knowledge or consciousness of the many
_revolutions_ that have taken place in moral judgments, and of
the number of times that "evil" has really and seriously been
christened "good" and _vice versa._ I myself pointed to one of these
transformations with the words "Sittlichkeit der Sitte."[3] Even
conscience has changed its sphere: formerly there

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

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I shall not speak of the noisy journey from the landing-stage, through the excited and expectant little place, nor shall I refer to the esoteric jokes exchanged between ourselves; I also make no mention of a feast which became both wild and noisy, or of an extraordinary musical production in the execution of which, whether as soloists or as chorus, we all ultimately had to share, and which I, as musical adviser of our club, had not only had to rehearse, but was then forced to conduct.
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of everything which tends to extend culture, provided that it be of service to its officials or soldiers, but in the main to itself, in its competition with other nations.
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e.
Page 39
' This is the sad plight of the public school of to-day: the narrowest views remain in a certain measure right, because no one seems able to reach or, at least, to indicate the spot where all these views culminate in error.
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What do you think it will seem like to these men when they hear of projects from which they are excluded _beneficio naturae_; of commands which their mediocre abilities are totally unable to carry out; of hopes which find no echo in them; of battles the war-cries of which they do not understand, and in the fighting of which they can take part only as dull and obtuse rank and file? But, without exaggeration, that must necessarily be the position of practically all the teachers in our higher educational establishments: and indeed we cannot wonder at this when we consider how.
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Finally, one of them brings forward his solution of a question, such as the Homeric poems considered from the standpoint of prepositions, and thinks he has drawn the truth from the bottom of the well with +ana+ and +kata+.
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It is more and more clearly evident that we have no educational institutions at all; but that we ought to have them.
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In this instinct also we may see a longing for immortality: wealth and power, wisdom, presence of mind, eloquence, a flourishing outward aspect, a renowned name--all these are merely turned into the means by which an insatiable, personal will to live craves for new life, with which, again, it hankers after an eternity that is at last seen to be illusory.
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[6] "I will thus ask you, my friend, not to confound this culture, this sensitive, fastidious, ethereal goddess, with that useful maid-of-all-work which is also called 'culture,' but which is only the intellectual servant and counsellor of one's practical necessities, wants, and means of livelihood Every kind of training, however, which holds out the prospect of bread-winning as its end and aim, is not a training for culture as we understand the word; but merely a collection of precepts and directions to show how, in the struggle for existence, a man may preserve and protect his own person.
Page 56
Here is an end of this naive metaphysics; and the physiology of plants and animals, geology, inorganic chemistry, force their devotees to view nature from an altogether different standpoint.
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Stay yet awhile; we know every foot of the way and can accompany you afterwards.
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For it is easy to see that we have up to the present been living and educating ourselves in the wrong way--but what can we do to cross over the chasm between to-day and to-morrow?" "Yes," acknowledged my friend, "I have a similar feeling, and I ask the same question: but besides that I feel as if I were frightened away from German culture by entertaining such high and ideal views of its task; yea, as if I were unworthy to co-operate with it in carrying out its aims.
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And what are.
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Why were we making this old man walk up and down with us between the rocks and trees at that time of the night? And, since he had yielded to our entreaties, why could we not have thought of a more modest and unassuming manner of having ourselves instructed, why should the three of us have contradicted him in such clumsy terms? For now we saw how thoughtless, unprepared, and baseless were.
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all the objections we had made, and how greatly the echo of _the_ present was heard in them, the voice of which, in the province of culture, the old man would fain not have heard.
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And when the leader gives the word it will be re-echoed from rank to rank.
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(_Delivered on the 23rd of March 1872.
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It was only after a pause that the philosopher slowly began to speak, not addressing us directly, as it were, but rather some one in the distance: "So, my friend, even at midnight, even on the top of a lonely mountain, we shall not be alone; and you yourself are bringing a pack of mischief-making students along with you, although you well know that I am only too glad to get out of the way of _hoc genus omne_.
Page 75
Do not, then, let yourselves be deceived in regard to the cultured student; for he, in so far as he thinks he has absorbed the blessings of education, is merely the public school boy as moulded by the hands of his teacher: one who, since his academical isolation, and after he has left the public school, has therefore been deprived of all further guidance to culture, that from now on he may begin to live by himself and be free.
Page 80
But you are afraid of this spirit, and it has therefore come to pass that a cloud of another sort has thrown a heavy and oppressive atmosphere around your universities, in which your noble-minded scholars breathe wearily and with difficulty.