The Will to Power, Book I and II An Attempted Transvaluation of all Values

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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...soon in an extended version, alo linking to free sources
for education worldwide ... MOOC's, educational
materials,...)...

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...had been so unsatisfactory,
and misunderstandings relative to its teaching had become so general,
that, within a...

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...recognised the
necessity of making a more unequivocal appeal to his public than
the _Zarathustra_ had been,...

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...in a miserable "struggle for existence," but in
a will to war, a Will to Power,...

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...at _a new
order of rank._

It will seem to some that morality is dealt with somewhat...

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...an honest and
sincere reformer ought no longer to find us prejudiced--to the extent
of deafness--against him,...

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...to-day will arrive at their logical
conclusion in Nihilism,--because Nihilism is the only possible outcome
of our...

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...Out of its practice there
finally _arises_ a certain self-annihilation, an antagonistic attitude
towards itself--a sort of...

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...to which we are able to
endure life. We have _ceased_ from attaching any worth to...

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...strength, the pain of "futility," uncertainty, the lack
of an opportunity to recover in some way,...

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...condemning this whole world of Becoming as an illusion,
and in discovering a world which would...

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...to Kant's celebrated table of
twelve categories. The four classes, quantity, quality, relation, and
modality, are each...

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...from it as if it had been an _a priori_ and
_absolute fact_: "God" at the...

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...as something fixed,
given and exacted _from outside_--that is to say, by some supernatural
authority. Once the...

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...a sign of
weakness: spiritual strength may be fatigued, _exhausted,_ so that the
goals and values which...

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...Carlyle's attempt
to lend them the highest moral values).

The result is that higher types are _resisted_.

_The...

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...after the old style, may be
derived from it.

_(d)_ There is an attempt to read the...

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...value,--only in this
sense are we pessimists,--that is to say, with the will to acknowledge
this transvaluation...

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..."what is the good of
tears?"--this is a feeble and sentimental attitude of mind. "_Un
monstre gai...

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...or not to be," is
itself an illness, a sign of degeneracy, an idiosyncrasy.

The Nihilistic movement...

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...in relation to this
fundamental question in _biology_? Philosophy, religion, morality, art,
etc.

(The remedy: militarism, for instance,...

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...all religious morality.

(4) A state of affairs is desired in which suffering shall cease;
life is...

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...feeble, the _insane_
and the _neurasthenic_ in a milder form, they present the same evils.

The value...

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...represents, to the things about him, and who sees them
fuller, mightier, and more pregnant with...

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...in the majority of cases, already a symptom of racial and
family decadence, as all hypersensitiveness...

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...contradiction
of values.


52.

If Nature have no pity on the degenerate, it is not therefore
immoral: the growth...

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...the one nor the other has been taught; but
rather virtue, disinterestedness, pity, and even the...

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...which might be given to evil and
even to existence. One interpretation has been overthrown: but...

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...who were treated
with violence and oppressed by their fellows, _morality_ saved life
from despair and from...

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...to become their hangmen. This
is the European form of Buddhism, that _active negation,_ after all
existence...

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...very much afraid of
sorrow--men who are _certain of their power,_ and who represent with
conscious pride...

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...and body), which was already well under way
before the French Revolution, and would have made...

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...But these eyes have always seen in the same way, in
all ages.

(1) A certain hypersensitiveness,...

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...mean that which
is the outcome of a _long period of activity in the same occupation_...

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...infinitely more acute (beneath moral vestments: the
increase of pity), the abundance of different impressions is...

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...and, with
strong lungs, "represent" grievances. Our modern life is extremely
_expensive,_ thanks to the host of...

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..."truth" as opposed to falsehood and lying (Naturalism);
the "scientific spirit" (the "human document": or, in...

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...though passion, instinct, and desire were the essential factors
of will) is typical: the depreciation of...

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...chaplains and anti-Semitic speculators: but nobody has ever
maintained that any "spirit" "hovers" over these waters....

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...culture, I have always had a feeling as of
_decline._ The fact that I learned to...

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...and again here, it was a low form of
exhaustion, a sort of general _ruere in...

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...century is dominated by _woman,_ it is gushing,
spiritual, and flat; but with intellect at the...

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..._moral fanaticism,_ is
quite eighteenth century style; still completely outside the historical
movement, without any notion whatsoever...

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...seventeenth century.


98.

_Against Rousseau.--Alas!_ man is no longer sufficiently evil;
Rousseau's opponents, who say that "man is...

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...forced him upwards.

"_Pour 'la canaille' un dieu rémunérateur et vengeur_"--Voltaire.

The criticism of both standpoints in...

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...made
hopeless mistakes in regard to great historical values (the French
Revolution); a moral fanatic _à la_...

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...was particularly fond of Don Juan (as Mendelssohn
assures us, 1831); Stendhal, too, who says of...

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...coarser: how could it therefore be equal to
the problem of Wagner!


108.

The Germans _are_ not yet...

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...such violent tension.
Dissatisfaction, Nihilism, _might be a good sign._


112.

_General survey._--As a matter of fact, all...

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...rank._--Those pious counterfeiters--the
priests--are becoming Chandala in our midst:--they occupy the
position of the charlatan, of the...

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...for
_us_ to all that is most remote and most strange in life and culture;
but our...

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...absolute spiritual debauchery, we hate pathetic and hieratic
manners, we delight in that which is most...

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...towards the
most intellectual and most audacious natures. Civilisation desires
something different from what culture strives after:...

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...violent hand-to-hand struggles and irruptions on their
account: the coming century is likely to be convulsed...

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...are becoming
more physical, nutrition consists ever more and more of flesh. Fine
men have once more...

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...stupidity, brutality, and
wretchedness in the masses, and _in the highest individuals._


131.

An incalculable number of higher...

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...view of conjuring in some way the cause of wars.

A condition of excessive _consciousness,_ after...

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...the cause of a
belief in the existence of some _foreign power_; but all such examples
of...

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...pitiable and weak
side, and the very strong and startling side apart, in two spheres, and
called...

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...is the
_highest type_ of man, that he rules,--even over those who wield the
power,--that he is...

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...Nothing is
strong enough: every one is in _need_ of the mediation and the services
of priests....

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...penance."

The _holy lie,_ therefore, applies principally to the _purpose_ of
an action (the natural purpose, reason,...

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...whole heritage of intelligence,
subtlety, and caution, the first condition of the priestly canon, is
arbitrarily reduced,...

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...to-day about the _Semitic_ spirit of the _New Testament_:
but the thing referred to is merely...

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...their
principles by means of rewards and punishment.


147.

_Paganism--Christianity.--Paganism_ is that which says yea to all
that is...

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...happy to be party to a
subterranean conspiracy.


154.

_Buddha_ versus _Christ._--Among the Nihilistic religions, Christianity
and _Buddhism_ may...

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...subtle suggestion of a Beyond to all morality is thought out
in its teaching, and this...

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...all the coarse forms relating to man's
intercourse with God: He is opposed to the whole...

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...rewards and punishments has become mixed up with
Christianity in a way which is quite absurd;...

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...priesthood and theology--a _ruling_ caste and
a _Church._

The attempt made to suppress the fussy importance of...

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...supposed to take place at some moment after
death;

(5) The teaching of the Son of man...

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...true,_ provided it be
_effective_: total _absence of intellectual uprightness._ Everything
is good, whether it be lying,...

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...of the whole structure. The
"martyr," the "fanatic," the value of all _strong_ belief. Christianity
is the...

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...the Jewish
experience, their propaganda, and their expertness in _the preservation
of a community_ under a foreign...

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...the cross.

(TRANSLATOR'S NOTE.)
]


176.

_The reaction of paltry people_:--Love provides the feeling of highest
power. It should be...

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...process of veneration
allows of the conclusion that, at one time or other, this Founder was
something...

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...its
monstrous will for life and for power, lies in its ruling classes; the
people who upheld...

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...to create a belief for themselves. And just
as the priesthood had falsified the whole history...

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...virtue in everything that is not Christian.


186.

The _profound contempt_ with which the Christian was treated...

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..._not much._
What remains is the development of a type of saint, out of the values
which...

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...movement_ of
antiquity, formulated with the use of the life, teaching, and "words"
of the Founder of...

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...a simple and loving life of action, instead of Buddhistic
happiness attainable on earth;

(6) An ecclesiastical...

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...good
society, but also from respectable society; grown away from the
_atmosphere_ of culture, and free from...

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...had done everything that
could be done to prepare the way for moral-fanaticism, even among
Greeks and...

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...peaceable and afflicted with great intellectual weariness.

This was also the case in regard to the...

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...of practice, and of compulsion to
practise). The castrator formulates a host of new self-preservative
measures for...

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...in the case of one's adherents (except
it be a trial, etc.).

Fifth recipe: One goes so...

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...the left cheek"
(to the demand: "Tell us whether thou be the Christ?" He replies:
"Hereafter shall...

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...and on the other
the world represents what is false and eternally to be reproved and
rejected....

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...life of the
Christian is ultimately exactly that life _from which Christ preached
deliverance...._ The Church is...

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...the above.

It is likewise of the nature of the _rulers_ (whether they are
individuals or classes)...

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...modern natural science.
Christian values are by no means overcome by such people. "Christ on
the cross"...

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...hieratic posing and vexation.


223.

_Poverty, humility, and chastity_ are dangerous and slanderous ideals;
but like poisons, which...

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...not reckon with it: nay, more--they
treated it as an enemy. It was their delirium to...

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...a matter of fact, the Christian is an example of
exaggerated self-control: in order to tame...

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..._demands an explanation...._

On the other hand, the _method_ of "salvation" may also develop
from the above:...

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...whole process of spiritual healing must be remodelled on a
physiological basis: the "sting of conscience"...

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...in order to believe in
a power that erases faults: we immoralists prefer to disbelieve
in "faults."...

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...as typical, would set us down as belonging to a lower
class of man. The one...

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...even be a means
of overcoming brutality by making the brutes _ill._ The psychical
treatment practised by...

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...soul" depended upon a book!... And I
am told that this is still believed.

What is the...

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...ignored, and a process is
initiated which ultimately leads to its ruin. Christianity is the
_reverse of...

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...cowardly infirmity of purpose of a religion like
_Christianity,_--or rather like the _Church,_--which, instead of
recommending death...

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...by means of a little spiritual surgery....


249.

What is it I protest against? That people should...

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...insidious and
slanderous eloquence, appeals to all the cowardices and vanities of
wearied souls,--and the strongest have...

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...for truth,
which again is due to Christian influence), this interpretation has
grown ever less and less...

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...and
egotistic principles.)


254.

An inquiry into the _origin of our moral valuations_ and tables of
law has absolutely...

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...this: _there are no moral phenomena, but only a
moral interpretation of phenomena. The origin of...

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...values to hand, and that they no longer contain
any creative power--the fundamental principle: "the condition...

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...was such a thing as
a gregarious pang of conscience.


[Footnote 3: The morality of custom.]


266.

A. _Morality_...

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...speak of); the
other is gushing, sentimental, full of secrets, it has the women and
"beautiful feelings"...

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...feelings, but _thinks to explain them with
moral hypotheses?_ In this way an occasional feeling of...

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...order to be immoral in this subtle way; let me speak in a
parable:--

A physiologist interested...

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...their judge!

The problem of "equality," in the face of the fact that we all thirst
for...

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...and supposing
thou art evil, thy power of dissimulation is absolutely the worst
thing for the herd....

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...judgment.


280.

The instinct of the herd values the _juste milieu_ and the _average_
as the highest and...

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...prerequisite--an attitude
of mind, a heart, a passion which we revere with all our soul. By
our...

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...rectitude, confidence, resignation,
pity, helpfulness, conscientiousness, simplicity, mildness, justice,
generosity, leniency, obedience, disinterestedness, freedom from envy,
good nature,...

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...opposite feelings,--that is to say, when he sees his danger and
his undoing in disinterested and...

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...of an imperfect
and often morbid constitution. _Personal perfection regarded as
determined by will, as an act...

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...must be _x_ unknown....


292.

It amounts to a _denaturalisation of morality,_ to _separate_ an action
from a...

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...condemn an action, we do not do so
as judges, but as adversaries.... When noble sentiments...

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...is a psychology of obstacles,_ a sort of
_barricade_ built out of fear; on the one...

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...and
supernatural values to their real "nature"--that is to say, to
_natural immorality,_ to natural "utility," etc.

Perhaps...

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...is perhaps a
sufficient reward for such a sacrifice. And even greater sacrifices!...
And some of the...

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...which is to keep his _esse_ and his _operari_
apart in a divine way; everything he...

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...which _either_
triumphs _or_ perishes--one must be _unconscious and naïf_.


312.

Cruelty has become transformed and elevated into...

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...and pernicious things it has:
for by means of them it may be harmful to us...

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...and then to declare, with anger and contempt of one's fellows,
that they do not exist!--It...

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...to be considered at
all, were never such donkeys of virtue: their inmost instinct, that
which determined...

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...so terrible that at
last one is obliged to run away from it in order to...

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..."virtue" is understood in such a way as
to be reminiscent of _virtù_--the virtue of the...

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...nothing quite isolated in the world: the smallest thing bears
the largest on its back; on...

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...tree as it ought to be."


333.

Ethics: or the "philosophy of desirability."--"Things _ought_ to be
otherwise," "things...

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...nor thrifty, he is insusceptible
of being improved--that is to say, he is only fit for...

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...And thus everything that lowers and
belittles man is elevated to an _ideal_.


336.

A desire _magnifies_ the...

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...of gravity of all values for each soul lay in that soul
itself: salvation or damnation!...

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...Christian morality. We should collect passages from
the poets in order to see _what_ they admired,...

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...state of beatitude in _A._ is the feeling
of extreme abundance; in _B._ it is reached...

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...an unquestionable power were manifesting itself; _(d)_ by
the slander of its opponents' ideals; _(e)_ by...

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...a
pretext is sought for the introduction of an insatiable lust of revenge
as a _moral and...

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...the cover of a _charitable movement,_ under the banner bearing
the device "For others."

The _cleverness_ of...

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...who
desire precisely the same thing with their "humanisation" generally,
or with their "Will of God," or...

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...must be combated eternally.
The "good man" sees himself surrounded by evil, and, thanks to the
continual...

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...with opposite natures and instincts would be discouraged and
would slowly become extinct?

At bottom, this is...

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...men_ were? But such men I can only conceive as
slaves, the slaves of the future.


357.

_The...

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...immoralists require
the _power_ of _morality,_ our instinct of self-preservation insists
upon our opponents maintaining their strength--all...

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...where he might have
stood, thanks to the development of a set of perfectly senseless
accidents. Or...

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...of his growth may even be
extreme. (It is the concern about the promise of the...

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...existence is something for which some one must
be _guilty,_ they are very closely related to...

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...truth as a means in the
service of the will to power.


376.

The _turning of_ man's _nature...

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..._very probably right in
supposing that Truth_ and _the will to truth_ are perhaps something
quite different...

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...Leonardo, Goethe).
The principal fact--their "free will"--is always suppressed.


381.

A great _lie_ in history; as if the...

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...radically evil element in human nature[8]).
_Saintliness_ also lurked somewhere in his soul.... I require a
criticism...

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...and impetuous, morality--this most shortsighted and most
corrupted of mental attitudes--would fain make them _dry up._


384.

_Conquest...

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...passion did not
possess its quantum of reason....


388.

How it was that, under the pressure of the...

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...is, that the _real_ man represents a much
higher value than the "desirable" man of any...

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...in spirit."


394.

The wholesale deception and fraud of so-called _moral improvement._

We do not believe that one...

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...famous assumption which is to be met
with in all ages, and in the mouth of...

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...educating influence
of which was a benevolent one or at least seemed so--that is to say,
tended...

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...misery. How shall we ever succeed in vindicating this
phenomenon--this artificial, arbitrary, and _recent_ miscarriage--the
sinner--which the...

Page 161

...of the "mediocre").

Thus in the _history of morality_ a _will to power_ finds expression,
by means...

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...of
ascending_ life.... The _will to nonentity_ has prevailed over the
_will to life_!

Is this _true_? is...

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... _Evolution of man._ A. He tried to attain to a certain power
...

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...us rid ourselves of a few superstitions which heretofore have been
fashionable among philosophers!


407.

Philosophers are prejudiced...

Page 165

...soon turned my back upon the meagre attempts
that have been made to describe the evolution...

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...evolution in general).


413.

The progress of philosophy has been hindered most seriously hitherto
through the influence of...

Page 167

...of being
suppressed--ugly!


417.

_My first solution of the problem: Dionysian wisdom. The joy in the
destruction of the...

Page 168

...as a portion of the old world itself,
as a glistening mosaic of ancient concepts and...

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...he is told to do so, and because others have done so
before him.


422.

The superstition concerning...

Page 170

..._conquest_: in obedience to this lust the
senses, memory, and the instincts, etc., were developed. The...

Page 171

...The instincts of the habitually suffering, who require a noble
interpretation of their condition, and who...

Page 172

...seriously, nor
should one forfeit a modest right to the opposite of morality....

A sort of _heritage...

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...great Ionians; but only as transitional forms. The
_polis_ loses its faith in the unity of...

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...for the pleasure of power was considered immoral;--not
one had the courage to regard virtue as...

Page 175

...a great extent,
Heraclitean, Democritean, and Protagorean ... to say that it is
_Protagorean_ is even sufficient:...

Page 176

...are
themselves types of dissolution.

In practice, it means that moral judgments have been torn from the
conditions...

Page 177

...Fox was a dialectician, and so was Socrates.
As a dialectician a person has a merciless...

Page 178

...of considering one's self a problem. Acoustic
hallucinations in Socrates: morbid element. When the intellect is
rich...

Page 179

...Pleasure is
a sensation of power: if the passions are excluded, those states of
the mind are...

Page 180

...hedonism, and
reaction.

The question of "happiness," of "virtue," and of the "salvation of the
soul," is the...

Page 181

...better still,
πραῢτης. A Buddhist for Greece, bred amid the tumult of the
Schools; born alter his...

Page 182

...could not have
been guilty of the profound error of regarding the conscious state
as the more...

Page 183

...never admit
that it is not right._


442.

This is extraordinary. From its very earliest beginnings, Greek
philosophy carries...

Page 184

...man earnestly troubles his head
about stars or plants. That is why science very quickly declined
in...

Page 185

..._his_ type as the highest. He
despises what is generally esteemed--by him a gulf is cleft...

Page 186

...directions; ... but, above all, it is
reassuring, it lends confidence, and alleviates life--it "improves"
the character...

Page 187

...certain "believers"). _What is it that inspires
Sceptics?_ The hatred of dogmatists--or a need of repose,...

Page 188

...the truth that happens to be ruling,
have been pressed aside and even smothered....

Truth, that is...

Page 189

...act"--said their more consistent brothers, the Buddhists,
and then thought out a mode of conduct which...

Page 190

...movements against principles, whether in
politics or agriculture, always follow a line of argument suggested by
this...

Page 191

...heretofore. If an end be thus made
to the tyranny of the former values, if we...

Page 192

..."Sabbath of Sabbaths" as an end to be
desired, and which, even in peace, honours the...

Page 193

...free spirits
to be found to-day? Let any one show me a free spirit to-day!


465.

Under "Spiritual...