against it; it was a form of deadly hostility to reality
which has never been surpassed. The "holy people" which had retained
only priestly values and priestly names for all things, and which, with
a logical consistency that is terrifying, had divorced itself from
everything still powerful on earth as if it were "unholy," "worldly,"
"sinful,"--this people created a final formula for its instinct which
was consistent to the point of self-suppression; as _Christianity_ it
denied even the last form of reality, the "holy people," the "chosen
people," _Jewish_ reality itself. The case is of supreme interest:
the small insurrectionary movement christened with the name of Jesus
of Nazareth, is the Jewish instinct _over again,_--in other words,
it is the sacerdotal instinct which can no longer endure the priest
as a fact; it is the discovery of a kind of life even more fantastic
than the one previously conceived, a vision of life which is even
more unreal than that which the organisation of a church stipulates.
Christianity denies the church.
I fail to see against whom was directed the insurrection of which
rightly or _wrongly_ Jesus is understood to have been the promoter,
if it were not directed against the Jewish church,--the word "church"
being used here in precisely the same sense in which it is used to-day.
It was an insurrection against the "good and the just," against
the "prophets of Israel," against the hierarchy of society--not
against the latter's corruption, but against caste, privilege, order,
formality. It was the lack of faith in "higher men," it was a "Nay"
uttered against everything that was tinctured with the blood of priests
and theologians. But the hierarchy which was set in question if only
temporarily by this movement, formed the construction of piles upon
which, alone, the Jewish people was able to subsist in the midst of the
"waters"; it was that people's _last_ chance of survival wrested from
the world at enormous pains, the _residuum_ of its political autonomy:
to attack this construction was tantamount to attacking the most
profound popular instinct, the most tenacious national will to live
that has ever existed on earth. This saintly anarchist who called the
lowest of the low, the outcasts and "sinners," the Chandala of Judaism,
to revolt against the established order of things (and in language
which, if the gospels are to be trusted, would get one sent to Siberia
even to-day)--this man was a political criminal in so far as political
criminals were possible in a community so absurdly non-political. This
brought him to the cross: the proof of this is the inscription found
thereon. He died for
One of these I must relate to you, since it forms a sort of prelude to the harmless experience already mentioned.Page 12
" To this rough, though admittedly just, flood of eloquence, we replied with some irritation, interrupting each other continually in so doing: "In.Page 19
which I went to such pains to inculcate upon you during our former intimacy.Page 21
"In the case of the view you have described so clearly, there arises the great and awful danger that at some time or other the great masses may overleap the middle classes and spring headlong into this earthly bliss.Page 23
For at present the exploitation of a man for the purpose of science is accepted everywhere without the slightest scruple.Page 31
"In regard to the language, what is surely least noticeable is any trace of the influence of _classical examples_: that is why, on the strength of this consideration alone, the so-called 'classical education' which is supposed to be provided by our public school, strikes me as something exceedingly doubtful and.Page 32
In this way boys learn to respect a grammar, lexicons, and a language that conforms to fixed rules; in this department of public school work there is an exact knowledge of what constitutes a fault, and no one is troubled with any thought of justifying himself every minute by appealing (as in the case of modern German) to various grammatical and orthographical vagaries and vicious forms.Page 40
These two worthy men saw clearly, by the system of instruction in vogue, that the time was not yet ripe for a higher culture, a culture founded upon that of the ancients: the neglected state of linguistic instruction; the forcing of students into learned historical paths, instead of giving them a practical training; the connection of certain practices, encouraged in the public schools, with the objectionable spirit of our journalistic publicity--all these easily perceptible phenomena of the teaching of German led to the painful certainty that the most beneficial of those forces which have come down to us from classical antiquity are not yet known in our public schools: forces which would train students for the struggle against the barbarism of the present age, and which will perhaps once more transform the public schools into the arsenals and workshops of this struggle.Page 50
This is a new and quite original occurrence: the State assumes the attitude of a mystogogue of culture, and, whilst it promotes its own ends, it obliges every one of its servants not to appear in its presence without the torch of universal State education in their hands, by the flickering light of which they may again recognise the State as the highest goal, as the reward of all their strivings after education.Page 52
The regulations and standards prevailing at such institutions differ from those in a true educational institution; and what in the latter is permitted, and even freely held out as often as possible, ought to be considered as a criminal offence in the former.Page 58
But a sudden and unexpected light was thrown on all that past life as we silently gave ourselves up to the vehement words of the philosopher.Page 61
" Our minds, as we thus argued with the philosopher, were unanimous, and, mutually encouraging and stimulating one another, we slowly walked with him backwards and forwards along the unencumbered space which had earlier in the day served us as a shooting range.Page 62
obtain the education you demand for them, to what degree do they show that they have been nourished and matured by basking in the sun of national education? And yet they are seen to be possible, they have nevertheless become men whom we must honour: yea, their works themselves justify the form of the development of these noble spirits; they justify even a certain want of education for which we must make allowance owing to their country and the age in which they lived.Page 66
They would employ it to prevent themselves from being separated from one another and overwhelmed by the first huge crowd, to prevent their few select spirits from losing sight of their splendid and noble task through premature weariness, or from being turned aside from the true path, corrupted, or subverted.Page 69
It must have seemed to him that his day had been lost, and he would have liked to blot it out of his memory, together with the recollection of ever having made our acquaintance.Page 74
' The foreigner is astonished.Page 82
 The gates of philosophy, of art, yea, even of antiquity, opened unto him; and in one of the most memorable of bloody acts, the murder of Kotzebue, he revenged--with penetrating insight and enthusiastic short-sightedness--his one and only Schiller, prematurely consumed by the opposition of the stupid world: Schiller, who could have been his leader, master, and organiser, and whose loss he now bewailed with such heartfelt resentment.Page 83
" [From a few MS.