The Twilight of the Idols - The Antichrist Complete Works, Volume Sixteen

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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traced to a will, to intentions
and to responsible actions. The doctrine of the will was invented
principally for the purpose of punishment,--that is to say, with
the intention of tracing guilt. The whole of ancient psychology,
or the psychology of the will, is the outcome of the fact that its
originators, who were the priests at the head of ancient communities,
wanted to create for themselves a right to administer punishments--or
the right for God to do so. Men were thought of as "free" in order that
they might be judged and punished--in order that they might be held
guilty: consequently every action had to be regarded as voluntary,
and the origin of every action had to be imagined as lying in
consciousness(--inthis way the most fundamentally fraudulent character
of psychology was established as the very principle of psychology
itself). Now that we have entered upon the opposite movement, now that
we immoralists are trying with all our power to eliminate the concepts
of guilt and punishment from the world once more, and to cleanse
psychology, history, nature and all social institutions and customs
of all signs of those two concepts, we recognise no more radical
opponents than the theologians, who with their notion of "a moral order
of things," still continue to pollute the innocence of Becoming with
punishment and guilt Christianity is the metaphysics of the hangman.


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What then, alone, can our teaching be?--That no one gives man his
qualities, neither God, society, his parents, his ancestors, nor
himself (--this nonsensical idea which is at last refuted here, was
taught as "intelligible freedom" by Kant, and perhaps even as early
as Plato himself). No one is responsible for the fact that he exists
at all, that he is constituted as he is, and that he happens to be in
certain circumstances and in a particular environment. The fatality of
his being cannot be divorced from the fatality of all that which has
been and will be. This is not the result of an individual intention,
of a will, of an aim, there is no attempt at attaining to any "ideal
man," or "ideal happiness" or "ideal morality" with him,--it is absurd
to wish him to be careering towards some sort of purpose. _We_ invented
the concept "purpose"; in reality purpose is altogether lacking. One
is necessary, one is a piece of fate, one belongs to the whole, one is
in the whole,--there is nothing that could judge, measure, compare,
and condemn our existence, for that would mean judging, measuring,
comparing and condemning the whole. _But there is nothing outside the
whole!_ The fact that no

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Text Comparison with Ecce homo, Wie man wird, was man ist

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Das Letzte, was ich versprechen würde, wäre, die Menschheit zu "verbessern".
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Der Papst treibt heute noch Handel mit diesem Widersinn.
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Die grosse Vernunft dieses Fatalismus, der nicht immer nur der Muth zum Tode ist, als lebenerhaltend unter den lebensgefährlichsten Umständen, ist die Herabsetzung des Stoffwechsels, dessen Verlangsamung, eine Art Wille zum Winterschlaf.
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Ein paar Fingerzeige noch aus meiner Moral.
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und den ganzen Tag ankränkelnd, wenn er nur um einen Grad zu schwach ist.
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Aus den Folgen dieses "Idealismus" erkläre ich mir alle Fehlgriffe, alle grossen Instinkt-Abirrungen und "Bescheidenheiten" abseits der Aufgabe meines Lebens, zum Beispiel, dass ich Philologe wurde - warum zum Mindesten nicht Arzt oder sonst irgend etwas Augen-Aufschliessendes? In meiner Basler Zeit war meine ganze geistige Diät, die Tages-Eintheilung eingerechnet, ein vollkommen sinnloser Missbrauch ausserordentlicher Kräfte, ohne eine irgendwie den Verbrauch deckende Zufuhr von Kräften, ohne ein Nachdenken selbst über Verbrauch und Ersatz.
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Es ist weder apollinisch, noch dionysisch; es negirt alle ästhetischen Werthe - die einzigen Werthe, die die "Geburt der Tragödie" anerkennt: es ist im tiefsten Sinne nihilistisch, während im dionysischen Symbol die äusserste Grenze der Bejahung erreicht ist.
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In diesem Sinne nennt Zarathustra die Guten bald "die letzten Menschen", bald den "Anfang vom Ende"; vor Allem empfindet er sie als die schädlichste Art Mensch, weil sie ebenso auf Kosten der Wahrheit als auf Kosten der Zukunft ihre Existenz durchsetzen.
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Man lebt vor ihm, man lebt nach ihm.
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