The Twilight of the Idols - The Antichrist Complete Works, Volume Sixteen

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 25

an agent (a "subject") lay
at the root of all things. Man projected his three "inner facts of
consciousness," the will, the spirit, and the ego in which he believed
most firmly, outside himself. He first deduced the concept Being out
of the concept Ego, he supposed "things" to exist as he did himself,
according to his notion of the ego as cause. Was it to be wondered at
that later on he always found in things only that which he had laid
in them?--The thing itself, I repeat, the concept thing was merely a
reflex of the belief in the ego as cause. And even your atom, my dear
good Mechanists and Physicists, what an amount of error, of rudimentary
psychology still adheres to it!--Not to speak of the "thing-in-itself,"
of the _horrendum pudendum_ of the metaphysicians! The error of spirit
regarded as a cause, confounded with reality! And made the measure of
reality! And called _God!_


_The Error of imaginary Causes._ Starting out from dreamland, we
find that to any definite sensation, like that produced by a distant
cannon shot for instance, we are wont to ascribe a cause after the
fact (very often quite a little romance in which the dreamer himself
is, of course, the hero). Meanwhile the sensation becomes protracted
like a sort of continuous echo, until, as it were, the instinct of
causality allows it to come to the front rank, no longer however as a
chance occurrence, but as a thing which has some meaning. The cannon
shot presents itself in a _causal_ manner, by means of an apparent
reversal in the order of time. That which occurs last, the motivation,
is experienced first, often with a hundred details which flash past
like lightning, and the shot is the _result._ What has happened? The
ideas suggested by a particular state of our senses, are misinterpreted
as the cause of that state. As a matter of fact we proceed in precisely
the same manner when we are awake. The greater number of our general
sensations--every kind of obstacle, pressure, tension, explosion in
the interplay of the organs, and more particularly the condition of
the _nervus sympathies_--stimulate our instinct of causality: we will
have a reason which will account for our feeling thus or thus,--for
feeling ill or well. We are never satisfied by merely ascertaining
the fact that we feel thus or thus: we admit this fact--we become
conscious of it--only when we have attributed it to some kind of
motivation. Memory, which, in such circumstances unconsciously becomes
active, adduces former conditions of a like kind, together with the
causal interpretations with

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Text Comparison with Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

Page 5
In the background of his activities and wanderings --for he is restless and aimless in his course as in a desert--stands the note of interrogation of an increasingly dangerous curiosity.
Page 8
Granted that it is _the problem of the gradations of rank,_ of which we may say that it is _our_ problem, we free spirits; now only in the midday of our life do we first understand what preparations, detours, tests, experiments, and disguises the problem needed, before it _was permitted_ to rise before us, and how we had first to experience the most manifold and opposing conditions of distress and happiness in soul and body, as adventurers and circumnavigators of the inner world called "man," as surveyors of all the "higher" and the "one-above-another," also called "man"--penetrating everywhere, almost without fear, rejecting nothing, losing nothing, tasting everything, cleansing everything from all that is accidental, and, as it were, sifting it out--until at last we could say, we free spirits, "Here--a _new_ problem! Here a long ladder, the rungs of which we ourselves have sat upon and mounted,--which we ourselves at some time have _been_! Here a higher place, a.
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Page 36
The hierarchy of possessions, however, is not fixed and equal at all times; if any one prefers vengeance to justice he is moral according to the standard of an earlier civilisation, but immoral according to the present one.
Page 43
Morality, which only takes intentions into account,.
Page 52
Whether we submit with difficulty or willingly is immaterial, enough that we do so.
Page 56
an action following and resulting from his convictions, and in the same way the Inquisition had a good right; only the ruling views were false, and produced a result which seems hard to us because those views have now grown strange to us.
Page 93
Page 108
Eventually, the public, which has lost the habit of seeing the actual artistic fact in the _controlling_ of depicting power, in the organising mastery over all art-means, _must_ come ever more and more to value power for power's sake, colour for colour's sake, idea for idea's sake, inspiration for inspiration's sake; accordingly it will not enjoy the elements and conditions of the work of art, unless _isolated,_ and finally will make the very natural demand that the artist _must_ deliver it to them isolated.
Page 113
Later on, perhaps, as he was a Christian and an Englishman, he discovered a few reasons in favour of his habit; these reasons may be upset, but he is not therefore upset in his whole position.
Page 132
Like Aristotle, he is not permitted to make any distinction between the "bores" and the "wits," his _dæmon_ leads him through the desert as well as through tropical vegetation, in order that he may only take pleasure in the really actual, tangible, true.
Page 143
--The best way to relieve and calm very embarrassed people is to give them decided praise.
Page 150
Page 152
--Irony is only permissible as a pedagogic expedient, on the part of a teacher when dealing with his pupils; its purpose is to humble and to shame, but in the wholesome way that causes good resolutions to spring up and teaches people to show honour and gratitude, as they would to a doctor, to him who has so treated them.
Page 167
--The greatest disadvantage of the national army, now so much glorified, lies in the squandering of men of the highest civilisation; it is only by the favourableness of all circumstances that there are such men at all; how carefully and anxiously should we deal with them, since long periods are required to create the chance conditions for the production of such delicately organised brains! But as the Greeks wallowed in the blood of Greeks, so do Europeans now in the blood of Europeans: and indeed, taken relatively, it is mostly the highly cultivated who are sacrificed, those who promise an abundant and excellent posterity; for such stand in the front of the battle as commanders, and also expose themselves to most danger, by reason of their higher ambition.
Page 175
the same reason that in large kitchens the cooking is at best only mediocre.
Page 176
When, however, the State is not permitted to derive any further advantage from religion, or when people think far too variously on religious matters to allow the State to adopt a consistent and uniform procedure with respect to them, the way out of the difficulty will necessarily present itself, namely to treat religion as a private affair and leave it to the conscience and custom of each single individual.
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People do not hate a great man's presumptuousness in so far as he feels his strength, but because he wishes to prove it by injuring others, by dominating them, and seeing how long they will stand it.