reader to Mrs Foerster-Nietzsche's Introduction to her brother's chief
work, which was translated for the eleventh volume of this Edition of
the Complete Works.
In reading these notes it would be well to refer to Nietzsche's other
utterances on the subject which are to be found at the end of vol.
ii. of the _Will to Power,_ and also, if possible, to have recourse
to the original German text. Despite the greatest care, I confess
that in some instances, I have felt a little doubt as to the precise
English equivalent for the thoughts expressed under the heading
_Eternal Recurrence;_ and, though I have attributed this difficulty to
the extreme novelty of the manner in which the subject is presented,
it is well that the reader should be aware that such doubt has been
entertained. For I disbelieve utterly in mere verbal translation,
however accurate, and would question anybody's right to convert a
German sentence into English--even though he were so perfect in
both languages as to be almost absolutely bilingual,--if he did not
completely grasp the thought behind the sentence.
The writing of the collected Explanatory Notes to _Thus Spake
Zarathustra_, cannot be given any exact date. Some of them consist of
comments, written down by Nietzsche after the completion of the book,
and kept as the nucleus of an actual commentary to Zarathustra, which
it seems to have been his intention, one day, to write; while others
are merely memoranda and rough sketches, probably written before the
completion of the work, and which served the purpose of a draft of his
original plan. The reader who knows _Thus Spake Zarathustra_ will be
able to tell wherein the book ultimately differed from the plan visible
in these preliminary notes.
As an authoritative, though alas! all too fragmentary elucidation of a
few of the more obscure passages of Zarathustra, some of these notes
are of the greatest value; and, in paragraph 73, for instance, there
is an interpretation of the Fourth and Last Part, which I myself would
have welcomed with great enthusiasm, at the time when I was having my
first struggles with the spirit of this great German sage's life work.
ANTHONY M. LUDOVICI.
I. ETERNAL RECURRENCE
1. THE DOCTRINE EXPOUNDED AND SUBSTANTIATED.
The extent of universal energy is limited; it is not "infinite": we
should beware of such excesses in our concepts! Consequently the number
of states, changes, combinations, and evolutions of this energy,
although it may be enormous and practically incalculable, is at any
rate definite and not unlimited. The time, however, in which this
universal energy works its changes is infinite--that is to say, energy
KENNEDY T.Page 3
However frequently my general observations may seem to bear particular application to our own conditions here, I personally have no desire to draw these inferences, and do not wish to be held responsible if they should be drawn, for the simple reason that I consider myself still far too.Page 5
No one should attempt to describe the future of our education, and the means and methods of instruction relating thereto, in a prophetic spirit, unless he can prove that the picture he draws already exists in germ to-day, and that all that is required is the extension and development of this embryo if the necessary modifications are to be produced in schools and other educational institutions.Page 8
In my account of the conversation already mentioned, I shall be able to make myself completely understood only to those among my audience who will be able to guess what I can do no more than suggest, who will supply what I am compelled to omit, and who, above all, need but to be reminded and not taught.Page 11
Years of exposure to rain and storm had slightly deepened the channels we had cut, and the figure seemed a welcome target for our pistol-practice.Page 17
Our little society had sown the seeds of this happy indifference in our souls and for it alone we were prepared to celebrate the anniversary of its foundation with hearty gratitude.Page 25
Every one of them knows what he has had to suffer from the condition of culture in schools; every one of them would fain protect his offspring from the need of enduring similar drawbacks, even though he himself was compelled to submit to them.Page 27
"Here then is a task for so-called 'formal' education [the education tending to develop the mental faculties, as opposed to 'material' education, which.Page 29
Here the pupils learn to speak of our unique _Schiller_ with the superciliousness of prigs; here they are taught to smile at the noblest and most German of his works--at the Marquis of Posa, at Max and Thekla--at these smiles German genius becomes incensed and a worthier posterity will blush.Page 35
In German public schools I have never yet found a trace of what might really be called 'classical education,' and there is nothing surprising in this when one thinks of the way in which these institutions have emancipated themselves from German classical writers and the discipline of the German language.Page 36
Who will conduct you to the land of culture, if your leaders are blind and assume the position of seers notwithstanding? Which of you will ever attain to a true feeling for the sacred seriousness of art, if you are systematically spoiled, and taught to stutter independently instead of being taught to speak; to aestheticise on your own account, when you ought to be taught to approach works of art almost piously; to philosophise without assistance, while you ought to be compelled to _listen_ to great thinkers.Page 41
Just because we take this matter so seriously, we should not take our own poor selves so seriously: at the very moment we are falling some one else will grasp the banner of our faith.Page 49
This right to higher education has been taken so seriously by the most powerful of modern States--Prussia--that the objectionable principle it has adopted, taken in connection with the well-known daring and hardihood of this State, is seen to have a menacing and dangerous consequence for the true German spirit; for we see endeavours.Page 54
For in all his efforts, however great and exceptional they seem to the onlooker,.Page 63
Who can tell to what these heroic men were destined to attain if only that true German spirit had gathered them together within the protecting walls of a powerful institution?--that spirit which, without the help of some such institution, drags out an isolated, debased, and degraded existence.Page 66
That enormous horde, crowding onwards on the first path towards its goal, would take the term to mean an institution by which each of its members would become duly qualified to take his place in the rank and file, and would be purged of everything which might tend to make him strive after higher and more remote aims.Page 67
But now it is just these talents I speak of which are drawn away from the true path, and their instincts estranged, by the continual seductions of that modern 'culture.Page 77
"In what relationship these universities stand to _art_ cannot be acknowledged without shame: in none at all.Page 78
He now seeks consolation in hasty and incessant action so as to hide himself from himself.Page 84
 A German students' association, of liberal principles, founded for patriotic purposes at Jena in 1813.