The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 9

standpoint of utility is as alien and as inapplicable as it could
possibly be, when we have to deal with so volcanic an effervescence of
supreme values, creating and demarcating as they do a hierarchy within
themselves: it is at this juncture that one arrives at an appreciation
of the contrast to that tepid temperature, which is the presupposition
on which every combination of worldly wisdom and every calculation of
practical expediency is always based--and not for one occasional, not
for one exceptional instance, but chronically. The pathos of nobility
and distance, as I have said, the chronic and despotic _esprit de
corps_ and fundamental instinct of a higher dominant race coming into
association with a meaner race, an "under race," this is the origin of
the antithesis of good and bad.

(The masters' right of giving names goes so far that it is permissible
to look upon language itself as the expression of the power of the
masters: they say "this _is_ that, and that," they seal finally every
object and every event with a sound, and thereby at the same time take
possession of it.) It is because of this origin that the word "good"
is far from having any necessary connection with altruistic acts, in
accordance with the superstitious belief of these moral philosophers.
On the contrary, it is on the occasion of the _decay_ of aristocratic
values, that the antitheses between "egoistic" and "altruistic"
presses more and more heavily on the human conscience--it is, to use
my own language, the _herd instinct_ which finds in this antithesis an
expression in many ways. And even then it takes a considerable time
for this instinct to become sufficiently dominant, for the valuation
to be inextricably dependent on this antithesis (as is the case in
contemporary Europe); for to-day that prejudice is predominant, which,
acting even now with all the intensity of an obsession and brain
disease, holds that "moral," "altruistic," and "_désintéressé_" are
concepts of equal value.


In the second place, quite apart from the fact that this hypothesis as
to the genesis of the value "good" cannot be historically upheld, it
suffers from an inherent psychological contradiction. The utility of
altruistic conduct has presumably been the origin of its being praised,
and this origin has become _forgotten_:--But in what conceivable way is
this forgetting _possible_! Has perchance the utility of such conduct
ceased at some given moment? The contrary is the case. This utility has
rather been experienced every day at all times, and is consequently
a feature that obtains a new and regular emphasis with every fresh
day; it follows that, so far from vanishing

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Text Comparison with Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

Page 16
) I hold, that as man now still reasons in dreams, so men reasoned also _when awake_ through thousands of years; the first _causa_ which occurred to the mind to explain anything that required an explanation, was sufficient and stood for truth.
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For one thing, we have more faith in the purity of his character than he has himself; then our love for him, probably on account of this very faith, is stronger than his love for himself.
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--Waiting is so difficult that even great poets have not disdained to take incapability of waiting as the motive for their works.
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--The impersonal has hitherto been looked upon as the actual distinguishing mark of moral action; and it has been pointed out that in the beginning it was in consideration of the common good that all impersonal actions were praised and distinguished.
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Hence, for the sake of the general usefulness of art, the artist himself must be excused if he does not stand in the front rank of the enlightenment and progressive civilisation of humanity; all his life long he has remained a child or a youth, and has stood still at the point where he was overcome by his artistic impulse; the feelings of the first years of life, however, are acknowledged to be nearer to those of earlier times than to those of the present century.
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--The belief in great, superior, fertile minds is not necessarily, but still very frequently, connected with that wholly or partly religious superstition that those spirits are of superhuman origin and possess certain marvellous faculties, by means of which they obtained their knowledge in ways quite different from the rest of mankind.
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For certainly, when life is ordered in the perfect State, the present will provide no more motive for poetry, and it would only be those persons who had remained behind who would ask for poetical unreality.
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Who cares now to discern, laughingly, the difference between reality and pretentious sham, between that which man _is_ and that which he wishes to represent; the feeling of this contrast has quite a different effect if we seek reasons.
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All mental and human freedom to which the Greeks attained is traceable to this fact.
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The contrary also happens; for instance, religion has a double face, according to whether a man looks up to it to relieve him of his burden and need, or looks down upon it as-upon fetters laid on him to prevent him from soaring too high into the air.
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Besides, a scholar who is misjudged may at present reckon with certainty that his discovery will be made by others, and that, at best, it will be allowed to him later on by some historian that he also already knew this or that but was not in a position to secure the recognition of his knowledge.
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A wife not infrequently has the ambition to present herself for this sacrifice, and then the husband may indeed feel satisfied,--he being enough of an egoist to have such a voluntary storm, rain, and lightning-conductor beside him.
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--To draw such a distinction between Government and people as if two separate spheres of power, a stronger and higher, and a weaker and lower, negotiated and came to terms with each other, is a remnant of transmitted political sentiment, which still accurately represents the historic establishment of the conditions of power in _most_ States.
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In fact, from this time onward it constantly sacrifices a number of its most conspicuous talents upon the "Altar of the Fatherland" or of national ambition, whilst formerly other spheres of activity were open to those talents which are now swallowed up by politics.
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In order to escape ennui, a man either works beyond the extent of his former necessities, or he invents play, that is to say, work that is only intended to appease the general necessity for work.
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heart to a prince, a party, a woman, a priestly order, an artist, or a thinker, in a state of infatuated delusion that threw a charm over us and made those beings appear worthy of all veneration, and every sacrifice--are we, therefore, firmly and inevitably bound? Or did we not, after all, deceive ourselves then? Was there not a hypothetical promise, under the tacit presupposition that those beings to whom we consecrated ourselves were really the beings they seemed to be in our imagination? Are we under obligation to be faithful to our errors, even with the knowledge that by this fidelity we shall cause injury to our higher selves? No, there is no law, no obligation of that sort; we _must_ become traitors, we must act unfaithfully and abandon our ideals again and again.