The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 80

Brahmans, for example, knew to a nicety how to do
this! The oldest philosophers were well versed in giving to their very
existence and appearance, meaning, firmness, background, by reason
whereof men learnt to _fear_ them; considered more precisely, they
did this from an even more fundamental need, the need of inspiring
in themselves fear and self-reverence. For they found even in their
own souls all the valuations turned _against_ themselves; they had
to fight down every kind of suspicion and antagonism against "the
philosophic element in themselves." Being men of a terrible age,
they did this with terrible means: cruelty to themselves, ingenious
self-mortification--this was the chief method of these ambitious
hermits and intellectual revolutionaries, who were obliged to force
down the gods and the traditions of their own soul, so as to enable
themselves to _believe_ in their own revolution. I remember the famous
story of the King Vicvamitra, who, as the result of a thousand years
of self-martyrdom, reached such a consciousness of power and such a
confidence in himself that he undertook to build a _new heaven_: the
sinister symbol of the oldest and newest history of philosophy in the
whole world. Every one who has ever built anywhere a "_new heaven_"
first found the power thereto in his _own hell_.. .. Let us compress
the facts into a short formula. The philosophic spirit had, in order
to be _possible_ to any extent at all, to masquerade and disguise
itself as one of the _previously fixed_ types of the contemplative
man, to disguise itself as priest, wizard, soothsayer, as a religious
man generally: the _ascetic ideal_ has for a long time served the
philosopher as a superficial form, as a condition which enabled him
to exist. .. . To be able to be a philosopher he had to exemplify the
ideal; to exemplify it, he was bound to _believe_ in it. The peculiarly
etherealised abstraction of philosophers, with their negation of the
world, their enmity to life, their disbelief in the senses, which has
been maintained up to the most recent time, and has almost thereby come
to be accepted as the ideal _philosophic attitude_--this abstraction
is the result of those enforced conditions under which philosophy
came into existence, and continued to exist; inasmuch as for quite
a very long time philosophy would have been _absolutely impossible_
in the world without an ascetic cloak and dress, without an ascetic
self-misunderstanding. Expressed plainly and palpably, the _ascetic
priest_ has taken the repulsive and sinister form of the caterpillar,
beneath which and behind which alone philosophy could live and slink
about.. ..

Has all that really changed? Has

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Text Comparison with The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

Page 15
But _this_ is what took place: from the trunk of that tree of revenge and hate, Jewish hate,--that most profound and sublime hate, which creates ideals and changes old values to new creations, the like of which has never been on earth,--there grew a phenomenon which was equally incomparable, _a new love_, the most profound and sublime of all kinds of love;--and from what other trunk could it have grown? But beware of supposing that this love has soared on its upward growth, as in any way a real negation of that thirst for revenge, as an antithesis to the Jewish hate! No, the contrary is the truth! This love grew out of that hate, as its crown, as its triumphant crown, circling wider and wider amid the clarity and fulness of the sun, and pursuing in the very kingdom of light and height its goal of hatred, its victory, its spoil, its strategy, with the same intensity with which the roots of that tree of hate sank into everything which was deep and evil with increasing stability and increasing desire.
Page 35
It was by the help of such images and precedents that man eventually kept in his memory five or six "I will nots" with regard to which he had already given his _promise_, so as to be able to enjoy the advantages of society--and verily with the help of this kind of memory man eventually attained "reason"! Alas! reason, seriousness, mastery over the emotions, all these gloomy, dismal things which are called reflection, all these privileges and pageantries of.
Page 38
These observations are purely conjectural; for, apart from the painful nature of the task, it is hard to plumb such profound depths: the clumsy introduction of the idea of "revenge" as a connecting-link simply hides and obscures the view instead of rendering it clearer (revenge itself simply leads back again to the identical problem--"How can the infliction of suffering be a satisfaction?").
Page 40
Pain has _not_ the same effect with negroes.
Page 41
It was with the help of such inventions that life got to learn the _tour de force_, which has become part of its stock-in-trade, the _tour de force_ of self-justification, of the justification of evil; nowadays this would perhaps require other auxiliary devices (for instance, life as a riddle, life as a problem of knowledge).
Page 43
His eye was now focussed to this perspective; and with that ponderous consistency characteristic of ancient thought, which, though set in motion with difficulty, yet proceeds inflexibly along the line on which it has started, man soon arrived at the great generalisation, "everything has its price, _all_ can be paid for," the oldest and most naive moral canon of _justice_, the beginning of all "kindness," of all "equity," of all "goodwill," of all "objectivity" in the world.
Page 44
"--The justice which began with the maxim, "Everything can be paid off, everything must be paid off," ends with connivance at the escape of those who cannot pay to escape--it ends, like every good thing on earth, by _destroying itself_.
Page 47
A word more on the origin and end of punishment--two problems which are or ought to be kept distinct, but which unfortunately are usually lumped into one.
Page 54
These terrible bulwarks, with which the social organisation protected itself against the old instincts of freedom (punishments belong pre-eminently to these bulwarks), brought it about that all those instincts of wild, free, prowling man became turned backwards against man himself.
Page 56
At bottom it is the same active force which is at work on a more grandiose scale in those potent artists and organisers, and builds states, which here, internally, on a smaller and pettier scale and with a retrogressive tendency, makes itself a bad science in the "labyrinth of the breast," to use Goethe's phrase, and which builds negative ideals; it is, I repeat, that identical _instinct of freedom_ (to use my own language, the will to power): only the material, on which this force with all its constructive and tyrannous nature is let loose, is here man himself, his whole old animal self--and not as in the case of that more grandiose and sensational phenomenon, the _other_ man, _other_ men.
Page 62
"Wonderful," says he on one occasion--it has to do with the case of Ægistheus, a _very_ bad case indeed-- "Wonderful how they grumble, the mortals against the immortals, _Only from us_, they presume, _comes evil_, but in their folly, Fashion they, spite of fate, the doom of their own disaster.
Page 66
What did the swine matter to him; what do they matter to us? 3.
Page 70
" Without interesting! Compare this definition with this other one, made by a real "spectator" and "artist"--by Stendhal, who once called the beautiful _une promesse de bonheur_.
Page 72
" Every animal, including la bête philosophe, strives instinctively after an _optimum_ of favourable conditions, under which he can let his whole strength have play, and achieves his maximum consciousness of power; with equal instinctiveness, and with a fine perceptive flair which is superior to any.
Page 85
.
Page 90
In one case the object is to prevent being hurt any more; in the other case the object is to _deaden_ a racking, insidious, nearly unbearable pain by a more violent emotion of any kind whatsoever, and at any rate for the time being to drive it out of the consciousness--for this purpose an emotion is needed, as wild an emotion as possible, and to excite that emotion some excuse or other is needed.
Page 95
The fact that they remained _true_ on this point is perhaps to be regarded as the best specimen of realism in the three great religions, absolutely soaked as they are with morality, with this one exception.
Page 97
All sick and diseased people strive instinctively after a herd-organisation, out of a desire to shake off their sense of oppressive discomfort and weakness; the ascetic priest divines this instinct and promotes it; wherever a herd exists it is the instinct of weakness which has wished for the herd, and the cleverness of the priests which has organised it, for, mark this: by an equally natural necessity the strong strive as much for _isolation_ as the weak for _union_: when the former bind themselves it is only with a view to an aggressive joint action and joint satisfaction of their Will.
Page 103
John dances of the Middle Ages; we find, as another phase of its after-effect, frightful mutilations and chronic depressions, by means of which the temperament of a nation or a city (Geneva, Bale) is turned once for all into its opposite;--this _training_, again, is responsible for the witch-hysteria, a phenomenon analogous to somnambulism (eight great epidemic outbursts of this only between 1564 and 1605);--we find similarly in its train those delirious death-cravings of large masses, whose awful "shriek," "_evviva la morte!_" was heard over the whole of Europe, now interrupted by voluptuous variations and anon by a rage for destruction, just as the same emotional sequence with the same intermittencies and sudden changes is now universally observed in every case where the ascetic doctrine of sin scores once more a great success (religious neurosis _appears_ as a manifestation of the devil, there is no doubt of it.
Page 109
Judged strictly, there does not exist a science without its "hypotheses," the thought of such a science is inconceivable, illogical: a philosophy, a faith, must always exist first to enable science to gain thereby a direction, a meaning, a limit and method, a _right_ to existence.