The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 51

small and accidental
material.--Punishment, as rendering the criminal harmless and incapable
of further injury.--Punishment, as compensation for the injury
sustained by the injured party, in any form whatsoever (including
the form of sentimental compensation).--Punishment, as an isolation
of that which disturbs the equilibrium, so as to prevent the further
spreading of the disturbance.--Punishment as a means of inspiring
fear of those who determine and execute the punishment.--Punishment
as a kind of compensation for advantages which the wrong-doer has
up to that time enjoyed (for example, when he is utilised as a
slave in the mines).--Punishment, as the elimination of an element
of decay (sometimes of a whole branch, as according to the Chinese
laws, consequently as a means to the purification of the race, or
the preservation of a social type).---Punishment as a festival, as
the violent oppression and humiliation of an enemy that has at last
been subdued.--Punishment as a mnemonic, whether for him who suffers
the punishment--the so-called "correction," or for the witnesses of
its administration. Punishment, as the payment of a fee stipulated
for by the power which protects the evil-doer from the excesses of
revenge.--Punishment, as a compromise with the natural phenomenon
of revenge, in so far as revenge is still maintained and claimed
as a privilege by the stronger races.--Punishment as a declaration
and measure of war against an enemy of peace, of law, of order,
of authority, who is fought by society with the weapons which war
provides, as a spirit dangerous to the community, as a breaker of the
contract on which the community is based, as a rebel, a traitor, and a
breaker of the peace.


This list is certainly not complete; it is obvious that punishment
is overloaded with utilities of all kinds. This makes it all the
more permissible to eliminate one supposed utility, which passes, at
any rate in the popular mind, for its most essential utility, and
which is just what even now provides the strongest support for that
faith in punishment which is nowadays for many reasons tottering.
Punishment is supposed to have the value of exciting in the guilty
the consciousness of guilt; in punishment is sought the proper
instrumentum of that psychic reaction which becomes known as a "bad
conscience," "remorse." But this theory is even, from the point of
view of the present, a violation of reality and psychology: and how
much more so is the case when we have to deal with the longest period
of man's history, his primitive history! Genuine remorse is certainly
extremely rare among wrong-doers and the victims of punishment; prisons
and houses of correction are not _the_ soil on

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