The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 50

is repudiated. One remembers
Huxley's reproach to Spencer of his "administrative Nihilism": but it
is a case of something much _more_ than "administration."


13.

To return to our subject, namely _punishment_, we must make
consequently a double distinction: first, the relatively permanent
_element_, the custom, the act, the "drama," a certain rigid sequence
of methods of procedure; on the other hand, the fluid element, the
meaning, the end, the expectation which is attached to the operation of
such procedure. At this point we immediately assume, _per analogiam_
(in accordance with the theory of the historic method, which we have
elaborated above), that the procedure itself is something older and
earlier than its utilisation in punishment, that this utilisation was
_introduced_ and interpreted into the procedure (which had existed
for a long time, but whose employment had another meaning), in short,
that the case is _different_ from that hitherto supposed by our _naïf_
genealogists of morals and of law, who thought that the procedure was
_invented_ for the purpose of punishment, in the same way that the hand
had been previously thought to have been invented for the purpose of
grasping. With regard to the other element in _punishment_, its fluid
element, its meaning, the idea of punishment in a very late stage of
civilisation (for instance, contemporary Europe) is not content with
manifesting merely one meaning, but manifests a whole synthesis "of
meanings." The past general history of punishment, the history of its
employment for the most diverse ends, crystallises eventually into
a kind of unity, which is difficult to analyse into its parts, and
which, it is necessary to emphasise, absolutely defies definition.
(It is nowadays impossible to say definitely _the precise reason_
for punishment: all ideas, in which a whole process is promiscuously
comprehended, elude definition; it is only that which has no history,
which can be defined.) At an earlier stage, on the contrary, that
synthesis of meanings appears much less rigid and much more elastic; we
can realise how in each individual case the elements of the synthesis
change their value and their position, so that now one element and
now another stands out and predominates over the others, nay, in
certain cases one element (perhaps the end of deterrence) seems to
eliminate all the rest. At any rate, so as to give some idea of the
uncertain, supplementary, and accidental nature of the meaning of
punishment and of the manner in which one identical procedure can
be employed and adapted for the most diametrically opposed objects,
I will at this point give a scheme that has suggested itself to
me, a scheme itself based on comparatively

Last Page Next Page

Text Comparison with Götzen-Dämmerung

Page 0
Das hindert nicht, dass sie die geglaubtesten sind; auch sagt man, zumal im vornehmsten Falle, durchaus nicht Götze.
Page 5
Mit Sokrates schlägt der griechische Geschmack zu Gunsten der Dialektik um: was geschieht da eigentlich? Vor Allem wird damit ein vornehmer Geschmack besiegt; der Pöbel kommt mit der Dialektik obenauf.
Page 10
.
Page 11
.
Page 13
.
Page 14
.
Page 20
Die Zähmung eines Thieres seine "Besserung" nennen ist in unsren Ohren beinahe ein Scherz.
Page 21
.
Page 25
Dem ganzen höheren Erziehungswesen in Deutschland ist die Hauptsache abhanden gekommen: Zweck sowohl als Mittel zum Zweck.
Page 26
.
Page 31
Es ist dem dionysischen Menschen unmöglich, irgend eine Suggestion nicht zu verstehn, er übersieht kein Zeichen des Affekts, er hat den höchsten Grad des verstehenden und errathenden Instinkts, wie er den höchsten Grad von Mittheilungs-Kunst besitzt.
Page 33
.
Page 35
21.
Page 39
Der Einzelne, das "Individuum", wie Volk und Philosoph das bisher verstand, ist ja ein Irrthum: er ist nichts für sich, kein Atom, kein "Ring der Kette", nichts bloss Vererbtes von Ehedem, - er ist die ganze Eine Linie Mensch bis zu ihm hin selber noch.
Page 42
Ob wir moralischer geworden sind.
Page 43
Die Spannkraft, die Spannweite zwischen den Extremen wird heute immer kleiner, - die Extreme selbst verwischen sich endlich bis zur Ähnlichkeit.
Page 47
Sie wissen, was sie beweisen müssen, darin sind sie praktisch, - sie erkennen sich unter einander daran, dass sie über "die Wahrheiten" übereinstimmen.
Page 51
.
Page 52
.
Page 57
Die Tragödie ist so fern davon, Etwas für den Pessimismus der Hellenen im Sinne Schopenhauer's zu beweisen, dass sie vielmehr als dessen entscheidende Ablehnung und Gegen-Instanz zu gelten hat.