The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 47

of spite and
vindictiveness--it takes this measure as soon as it is at all strong
enough to do so--is the foundation of _law_, the imperative declaration
of what in its eyes is to be regarded as just and lawful, and what
unjust and unlawful: and while, after the foundation of law, the
supreme power treats the aggressive and arbitrary acts of individuals,
or of whole groups, as a violation of law, and a revolt against
itself, it distracts the feelings of its subjects from the immediate
injury inflicted by such a violation, and thus eventually attains the
very opposite result to that always desired by revenge, which sees
and recognises nothing but the standpoint of the injured party. From
henceforth the eye becomes trained to a more and more _impersonal_
valuation of the deed, even the eye of the injured party himself
(though this is in the final stage of all, as has been previously
remarked)--on this principle "right" and "wrong" first manifest
themselves after the foundation of law (and not, as Dühring maintains,
only after the act of violation). To talk of intrinsic right and
intrinsic wrong is absolutely non-sensical; intrinsically, an injury,
an oppression, an exploitation, an annihilation can be nothing wrong,
inasmuch as life is _essentially_ (that is, in its cardinal functions)
something which functions by injuring, oppressing, exploiting, and
annihilating, and is absolutely inconceivable without such a character.
It is necessary to make an even more serious confession:--viewed from
the most advanced biological standpoint, conditions of legality can be
only _exceptional conditions_, in that they are partial restrictions
of the real life-will, which makes for power, and in that they are
subordinated to the life-will's general end as particular means,
that is, as means to create _larger_ units of strength. A legal
organisation, conceived of as sovereign and universal, not as a weapon
in a fight of complexes of power, but as a weapon _against_ fighting,
generally something after the style of Dühring's communistic model
of treating every will as equal with every other will, would be a
principle _hostile to life_, a destroyer and dissolver of man, an
outrage on the future of man, a symptom of fatigue, a secret cut to


A word more on the origin and end of punishment--two problems which
are or ought to be kept distinct, but which unfortunately are usually
lumped into one. And what tactics have our moral genealogists employed
up to the present in these cases? Their inveterate naïveté. They find
out some "end" in the punishment, for instance, revenge and deterrence,
and then in all their innocence set this end at the beginning, as the

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Text Comparison with Human, All-Too-Human: A Book for Free Spirits, Part 1 Complete Works, Volume Six

Page 1
" The form of this book will be better understood when it is remembered that at this period Nietzsche was beginning to suffer from stomach trouble and headaches.
Page 50
_--What a great deal of pleasure morality gives! Only think what a sea of pleasant tears has been shed over descriptions of noble and unselfish deeds! This charm of life would vanish if the belief in absolute irresponsibility were to obtain supremacy.
Page 53
It is not known that the same degree of well-being can also exist with other customs, and that even higher degrees may be attained.
Page 54
"To cause pain _per se_" does not exist, except in the brains of philosophers, neither does "to give pleasure _per se_" (pity in Schopenhauer's meaning).
Page 61
Page 74
In the first place, a nature that is only capable of purely un-egoistic actions is more fabulous than the phœnix; it cannot even be clearly imagined, just because, when closely examined, the whole idea "un-egoistic action" vanishes into air.
Page 77
Actually, therefore, he only cares about discharging his emotion; in order to ease his tension he seizes the enemy's spears and buries them in his breast.
Page 81
Now to sum up.
Page 86
Probably this occasionally drove the neighbouring nations to desperation.
Page 120
This must not arouse anger, however erroneous the view may be.
Page 130
For on the whole, opposition doctrines and scepticism now speak too powerfully, too loudly.
Page 136
Supposing some one were living as much in love for the plastic arts or for music as he was carried away by the spirit of science, and that he were to.
Page 137
Emotion and self-pity at the sight of lower culture is the sign of higher culture; from which the conclusion may be drawn that happiness has certainly not been increased by it.
Page 149
Page 160
--If we could disregard the claims of custom in our thinking we might consider whether nature and reason do not suggest several marriages for men, one after another: perhaps that, at the age of twenty-two, he should first marry an older girl who is mentally and morally his superior, and can be his leader through all the dangers of the twenties (ambition, hatred, self-contempt, and passions of all kinds).
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Page 183
) 480.
Page 197
The tone of riper age is rigorous, abruptly concise, moderately loud, but, like everything distinctly articulated, is heard very far off.
Page 201
--If we observe how some people can deal with their experiences--their unimportant, everyday experiences--so that these become soil which yields fruit thrice a year; whilst others--and how many!--are driven through the surf of the most exciting adventures, the most diversified movements of times and peoples, and yet always remain light, always remain on the surface, like cork; we are finally tempted to divide mankind into a minority (minimality) of those who know how to make much out of little, and a majority of those who know how to make little out of much; indeed, we even meet with the counter-sorcerers who, instead of making the world out of nothing, make a nothing out of the world.
Page 205
that the Church _possessed_ truth and had to preserve it at all costs, and at any sacrifice, for the salvation of mankind.