The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 42

looking down on the moral
struggle, the heroism, and the self-torture of the virtuous; the
Heracles of duty was on a stage, and was conscious of the fact; virtue
without witnesses was something quite unthinkable for this nation of
actors. Must not that philosophic invention, so audacious and so fatal,
which was then absolutely new to Europe, the invention of "free will,"
of the absolute spontaneity of man in good and evil, simply have been
made for the specific purpose of justifying the idea, that the interest
of the gods in humanity and human virtue was _inexhaustible_?

There would never on the stage of this free-will world be a dearth of
really new, really novel and exciting situations, plots, catastrophes.
A world thought out on completely deterministic lines would be easily
guessed by the gods, and would consequently soon bore them--sufficient
reason for these _friends of the gods_, the philosophers, not to
ascribe to their gods such a deterministic world. The whole of ancient
humanity is full of delicate consideration for the spectator, being as
it is a world of thorough publicity and theatricality, which could not
conceive of happiness without spectacles and festivals.--And, as has
already been said, even in great punishment there is so much which is


The feeling of "ought," of personal obligation (to take up again
the train of our inquiry), has had, as we saw, its origin in the
oldest and most original personal relationship that there is, the
relationship between buyer and seller, creditor and ower: here it
was that individual confronted individual, and that individual
_matched himself against_ individual. There has not yet been found
a grade of civilisation so low, as not to manifest some trace of
this relationship. Making prices, assessing values, thinking out
equivalents, exchanging--all this preoccupied the primal thoughts
of man to such an extent that in a certain sense it constituted
_thinking_ itself: it was here that was trained the oldest form of
sagacity, it was here in this sphere that we can perhaps trace the
first commencement of man's pride, of his feeling of superiority over
other animals. Perhaps our word "Mensch" (_manas_) still expresses
just something of _this_ self-pride: man denoted himself as the being
who measures values, who values and measures, as the "assessing"
animal _par excellence_. Sale and purchase, together with their
psychological concomitants, are older than the origins of any form of
social organisation and union: it is rather from the most rudimentary
form of individual right that the budding consciousness of exchange,
commerce, debt, right, obligation, compensation was first transferred
to the rudest and most elementary of the social complexes (in their

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Text Comparison with Thoughts Out of Season, Part II

Page 1
In the realm of thought, they are of the type of the ideal philosopher sketched in the second essay.
Page 6
We saw that the beast, absolutely "unhistorical," with the narrowest of horizons, has yet a certain happiness, and lives at least without hypocrisy or ennui; and so we may hold the capacity of feeling (to a certain extent) unhistorically, to be the more important and elemental, as providing the foundation of every sound and real growth, everything that is truly great and human.
Page 11
Suppose one believe that no more than a hundred men, brought up in the new spirit, efficient and productive, were needed to give the deathblow to the present fashion of education in Germany; he will gather strength from the remembrance that the culture of the Renaissance was raised on the shoulders of such another band of a hundred men.
Page 13
Their instinct tells them that art can be slain by art: the monumental will never be reproduced, and the weight of its authority is invoked from the past to make it sure.
Page 25
Individuality has withdrawn itself to its recesses; it is seen no more from the outside, which makes one doubt if it be possible to have causes without effects.
Page 36
A religion, for example, that has to be turned into a matter of historical knowledge by the power of pure justice, and to be scientifically studied throughout, is destroyed at the end of it all.
Page 40
This easy-going behaviour is called "the modest condescension of the savant to the people"; whereas in reality he has only "descended" to himself, so far as he is not a savant but a plebeian.
Page 45
" But the man who has once learnt to crook the knee and bow the head before the power of history, nods "yes" at last, like a Chinese doll, to every power, whether it be a government or a public opinion or a numerical majority; and his limbs move correctly as the power pulls the string.
Page 48
Let us then sacrifice on his altar, and offer the inventor of a true universal medicine a lock of hair, in Schleiermacher's phrase.
Page 53
Thus the masses have to produce the great man, chaos to bring forth order; and finally all the hymns are naturally sung to the teeming chaos.
Page 71
" There are two very different kinds of joyfulness.
Page 73
All the more did I exert myself to see behind the book the living man whose testament it was, and who promised his inheritance to such as could, and would, be more than his readers--his pupils and his sons.
Page 77
My one highest aim has vanished, and I have no more.
Page 83
A man who thinks state-service to be his highest duty, very possibly knows no higher one; yet there are both men and duties in a region beyond,--and one of these duties, that seems to me at least of higher value than state-service, is to destroy stupidity in all its forms--and this particular stupidity among them.
Page 95
If a man think of all that Schopenhauer, for example, must have _heard_ in his life, he may well say to himself--"The deaf ears, the feeble understanding and shrunken heart, everything that I call mine,--how I despise them! Not to be able to fly but only to flutter one's wings! To look above one's self and have no power to rise! To know the road that leads to the wide vision of the philosopher, and to reel back after a few steps! Were there but one day when the great wish might be fulfilled, how gladly would we pay for it with the rest of life! To rise as high as any thinker yet into the pure icy air of the mountain, where there are no mists and veils, and the inner constitution of things is shown in a stark and piercing clarity! Even by thinking of this the soul becomes infinitely alone; but were its wish fulfilled, did its glance once fall straight as a ray of light on the things below, were shame and anxiety and desire gone for ever--one could find no words for its state then, for the mystic and tranquil emotion with which, like the soul of Schopenhauer, it would look down on the monstrous hieroglyphics of existence and the petrified doctrines of "becoming"; not as the brooding night, but as the red and glowing day that streams over the earth.
Page 98
And so he who rests his hope on a future great man, receives his first "initiation into culture.
Page 99
Any one who can reach the second step, will see how extremely rare and imperceptible the knowledge of that end is, though all men busy themselves with culture and expend vast labour in her service.
Page 114
Page 117
Can a University philosopher ever keep clearly before him the whole round of these duties and limitations? I do not know.
Page 125
All her true friends are bound to bear witness against this transformation, at least to show that it is merely her false servants in philosopher's clothing who are so.