The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

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these things originate from that instinct which
found in pain its most potent mnemonic. In a certain sense the whole
of asceticism is to be ascribed to this: certain ideas have got to
be made inextinguishable, omnipresent, "fixed," with the object of
hypnotising the whole nervous and intellectual system through these
"fixed ideas"--and the ascetic methods and modes of life are the means
of freeing those ideas from the competition of all other ideas so as to
make them "unforgettable." The worse memory man had, the ghastlier the
signs presented by his customs; the severity of the penal laws affords
in particular a gauge of the extent of man's difficulty in conquering
forgetfulness, and in keeping a few primal postulates of social
intercourse ever present to the minds of those who were the slaves
of every momentary emotion and every momentary desire. We Germans do
certainly not regard ourselves as an especially cruel and hard-hearted
nation, still less as an especially casual and happy-go-lucky one;
but one has only to look at our old penal ordinances in order to
realise what a lot of trouble it takes in the world to evolve a
"nation of thinkers" (I mean: _the_ European nation which exhibits at
this very day the maximum of reliability, seriousness, bad taste, and
positiveness, which has on the strength of these qualities a right to
train every kind of European mandarin). These Germans employed terrible
means to make for themselves a memory, to enable them to master their
rooted plebeian instincts and the brutal crudity of those instincts:
think of the old German punishments, for instance, stoning (as far back
as the legend, the millstone falls on the head of the guilty man),
breaking on the wheel (the most original invention and speciality of
the German genius in the sphere of punishment), dart-throwing, tearing,
or trampling by horses ("quartering"), boiling the criminal in oil or
wine (still prevalent in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the
highly popular flaying ("slicing into strips"), cutting the flesh out
of the breast; think also of the evil-doer being besmeared with honey,
and then exposed to the flies in a blazing sun. It was by the help of
such images and precedents that man eventually kept in his memory five
or six "I will nots" with regard to which he had already given his
_promise_, so as to be able to enjoy the advantages of society--and
verily with the help of this kind of memory man eventually attained
"reason"! Alas! reason, seriousness, mastery over the emotions, all
these gloomy, dismal things which are called reflection, all these
privileges and pageantries of

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions; Homer and Classical Philology Complete Works, Volume Three

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Now, with this book in his hand, the writer seeks all those who may happen to be wandering, hither and thither, impelled by feelings similar to his own.
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When I promised to speak to you concerning the future of our educational institutions, I was not thinking especially of the evolution of our particular institutions in Bâle.
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which is striving to educate and enlighten its members on a scale so magnificently out of proportion to its size that it must put all larger cities to shame.
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" "That is a good deal and at the same time very little," growled the philosopher; "just you think the matter over.
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the philosopher's bench had lost its original character and travelled to us in much more piercing and distinct tones than before.
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it.
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We well know that a just posterity judges the collective intellectual state of a time only by those few great and lonely figures of the period, and gives its decision in accordance with the manner in which they are recognised, encouraged, and honoured, or, on the other hand, in which they are snubbed, elbowed aside, and kept down.
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Where lies the blame! Where the poetic justice! Suddenly it occurs to him: OEdipus was a passionate fellow, lacking all Christian gentleness--he even fell into an unbecoming rage when Tiresias called him a monster and the curse of the whole country.
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Whoever is acquainted with our present public schools well knows what a wide gulf separates their teachers from classicism, and how, from a feeling of this want, comparative philology and allied professions have increased their numbers to such an unheard-of degree.
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"But even in this highest form of the ego, in the enhanced needs of such a distended and, as it were, collective individual, true culture is never touched upon; and if, for example, art is sought after, only its disseminating and stimulating actions come into prominence, _i.
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"You must not think, however, that I wish to withhold all praise from our primary and secondary schools: I honour the seminaries where boys learn arithmetic and master modern languages, and study geography and the marvellous discoveries made in natural science.
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" We kept on arguing in this fashion, speaking without any great ability and not putting our thoughts in any special form: but the philosopher's companion went even further, and said to him: "Just think of all these great geniuses of whom we are wont to be so proud, looking upon them as tried and true leaders and guides of this real German spirit, whose names we commemorate by statues and festivals, and whose works we hold up with feelings of pride for the admiration of foreign lands--how did they obtain the education you demand for them, to what degree do they show that they have been nourished and matured by basking in the sun of national education? And yet they are seen to be possible, they have nevertheless become men whom we must honour: yea, their works themselves justify the form of the development of these noble spirits; they justify even a certain want of education for which we must make allowance owing to their country and the age in which they lived.
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In spite of you they created their immortal works, against you they directed their attacks, and thanks to you they died so prematurely, their tasks only half accomplished, blunted and dulled and shattered in the battle.
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That enormous horde, crowding onwards on the first path towards its goal, would take the term to mean an institution by which each of its members would become duly qualified to take his place in the rank and.
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Not a few, even of those whose talents may be of the second or third order, are suited to such co-operation, and only when serving in such an educational establishment as this do they feel that they are truly carrying out their life's task.
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Take away the Greeks, together with philosophy and art, and what ladder have you still remaining by which to ascend to culture? For, if you attempt to clamber up the ladder without these helps, you must permit me to inform you that all your learning will lie like a heavy burden on your shoulders rather than furnishing you with wings and bearing you aloft.
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You see the orchestra only as an indifferent, ill-humoured, and even wearisome crowd of players.
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Science has this in common with art, that the most ordinary, everyday thing appears to it as something entirely new and attractive, as if metamorphosed by witchcraft and now seen for the first time.
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At a certain given date, about the time of Pisistratus, the poems which had been repeated orally were said to have been collected in manuscript form; but the scribes, it is added, allowed themselves to take some liberties with the text by transposing some lines and adding extraneous matter here and there.
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But I have also, I imagine, recalled two facts to those friends of antiquity who take.