The Genealogy of Morals The Complete Works, Volume Thirteen, edited by Dr. Oscar Levy.

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 12

Virchow still connects, those
traces of an essentially dark-haired population which are to be seen
on the more elaborate ethnographical maps of Germany with any Celtic
ancestry or with any admixture of Celtic blood: in this context it is
rather the _pre-Aryan_ population of Germany which surges up to these
districts. (The same is true substantially of the whole of Europe: in
point of fact, the subject race has finally again obtained the upper
hand, in complexion and the shortness of the skull, and perhaps in
the intellectual and social qualities. Who can guarantee that modern
democracy, still more modern anarchy, and indeed that tendency to the
"Commune," the most primitive form of society, which is now common to
all the Socialists in Europe, does not in its real essence signify a
monstrous reversion--and that the conquering and _master_ race--the
Aryan race, is not also becoming inferior physiologically?) I believe
that I can explain the Latin _bonus_ as the "warrior": my hypothesis
is that I am right in deriving _bonus_ from an older _duonus_ (compare
_bellum_ = _duellum_ = _duen-lum_, in which the word _duonus_ appears
to me to be contained). Bonus accordingly as the man of discord, of
variance, "entzweiung" (_duo_), as the warrior: one sees what in
ancient Rome "the good" meant for a man. Must not our actual German
word _gut_ mean "_the godlike_, the man of godlike race"? and be
identical with the national name (originally the nobles' name) of the

The grounds for this supposition do not appertain to this work.


Above all, there is no exception (though there are opportunities for
exceptions) to this rule, that the idea of political superiority
always resolves itself into the idea of psychological superiority, in
those cases where the highest caste is at the same time the _priestly_
caste, and in accordance with its general characteristics confers on
itself the privilege of a title which alludes specifically to its
priestly function. It is in these cases, for instance, that "clean" and
"unclean" confront each other for the first time as badges of class
distinction; here again there develops a "good" and a "bad," in a sense
which has ceased to be merely social. Moreover, care should be taken
not to take these ideas of "clean" and "unclean" too seriously, too
broadly, or too symbolically: all the ideas of ancient man have, on
the contrary, got to be understood in their initial stages, in a sense
which is, to an almost inconceivable extent, crude, coarse, physical,
and narrow, and above all essentially unsymbolical. The "clean man" is
originally only a man who washes himself, who abstains from

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Text Comparison with Homer and Classical Philology

Page 0
From the standpoint of the pedagogue, a choice was offered of those elements which were of the greatest educational value; and thus that science, or at least that scientific aim, which we call philology, gradually developed out of the practical calling originated by the exigencies of that science itself.
Page 1
Life is worth living, says art, the beautiful temptress; life is worth knowing, says science.
Page 2
When, however, even the friends of antiquity, possessed of such doubts and hesitations, point to our present classical philology as something questionable, what influence may we not ascribe to the outbursts of the "realists" and the claptrap of the heroes of the passing hour? To answer the latter on this occasion, especially when we consider the nature of the present assembly, would be highly injudicious; at any rate, if I do not wish to meet with the fate of that sophist who, when in Sparta, publicly undertook to praise and defend Herakles, when he was interrupted with the query: "But who then has found fault with him?".
Page 3
Let us then examine the so-called _Homeric question_ from this standpoint, a question the most important problem of which Schiller called a scholastic barbarism.
Page 4
When historical criticism has confidently seized upon this method of evaporating apparently concrete personalities, it is permissible to point to the first experiment as an important event in the history of sciences, without considering whether it was successful in this instance or not.
Page 5
poem and its tradition was prepared, according to which these discrepancies were not due to Homer, but to those who committed his words to writing and those who sang them.
Page 6
Homer had now become of small consequence.
Page 7
If, however, this construction was not clearly seen, this fault was due to the way the poems were handed down to posterity and not to the poet himself--it was the result of retouchings and interpolations, owing to which the original setting of the work gradually became obscured.
Page 8
The people now understood for the first time that the long-felt power of greater individualities and wills was larger than the pitifully small will of an individual man;[1] they now saw that everything truly great in the kingdom of the will could not have its deepest root in the inefficacious and ephemeral individual will; and, finally, they now discovered the powerful instincts of the masses, and diagnosed those unconscious impulses to be the foundations and supports of the so-called universal history.
Page 9
This tradition is exposed to eternal danger without the help of handwriting, and runs the risk of including in the poems the remains of those individualities through whose oral tradition they were handed down.
Page 10
The sum total of aesthetic singularity which every individual scholar perceived with his own artistic gifts, he now called Homer.
Page 11
This transformation was contemporary with the rationalistic criticism which made Homer the magician out to be a possible poet, which vindicated the material and formal traditions of those numerous epics as against the unity of the poet, and gradually removed that heavy load of cyclical epics from Homer's shoulders.
Page 12
If we include the so-called cyclic poems in this comparison, there remains for the designer of the _Iliad_ and the _Odyssey_ the indisputable merit of having done something relatively great in this conscious technical composing: a merit which we might have been prepared to recognise from the beginning, and which is in my opinion of the very first order in the domain of instinctive creation.
Page 13
" This period regards Homer as belonging to the ranks of artists like Orpheus, Eumolpus, Daedalus, and Olympus, the mythical discoverers of a new branch of art, to whom, therefore, all the later fruits which grew from the new branch were thankfully dedicated.
Page 14
You honour the immortal masterpieces of the Hellenic mind in poetry and sculpture, and think yourselves so much more fortunate than preceding generations, which had to do without them; but you must not forget that this whole fairyland once lay buried under mountains of prejudice, and that the blood and sweat and arduous labour of innumerable followers of our science were all necessary to lift up that world from the chasm into which it had sunk.
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great homogeneous views alone remain.