Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 73

sein, dass er
selbst auch auf allen diesen Stufen einmal gestanden hat, auf welchen
seine Diener, die wissenschaftlichen Arbeiter der Philosophie, stehen
bleiben, - stehen bleiben müssen; er muss selbst vielleicht Kritiker
und Skeptiker und Dogmatiker und Historiker und überdies Dichter
und Sammler und Reisender und Räthselrather und Moralist und Seher
und "freier Geist" und beinahe Alles gewesen sein, um den Umkreis
menschlicher Werthe und Werth-Gefühle zu durchlaufen und mit vielerlei
Augen und Gewissen, von der Höhe in jede Ferne, von der Tiefe in
jede Höhe, von der Ecke in jede Weite, blicken zu können. Aber dies
Alles sind nur Vorbedingungen seiner Aufgabe: diese Aufgabe selbst
will etwas Anderes, - sie verlangt, dass er Werthe schaffe. Jene
philosophischen Arbeiter nach dem edlen Muster Kant's und Hegel's
haben irgend einen grossen Thatbestand von Werthschätzungen - das
heisst ehemaliger Werthsetzungen, Werthschöpfungen, welche herrschend
geworden sind und eine Zeit lang "Wahrheiten" genannt werden -
festzustellen und in Formeln zu drängen, sei es im Reiche des
Logischen oder des Politischen (Moralischen) oder des Künstlerischen.
Diesen Forschern liegt es ob, alles bisher Geschehene und Geschätzte
übersichtlich, überdenkbar, fasslich, handlich zu machen, alles Lange,
ja "die Zeit" selbst, abzukürzen und die ganze Vergangenheit zu
überwältigen: eine ungeheure und wundervolle Aufgabe, in deren Dienst
sich sicherlich jeder feine Stolz, jeder zähe Wille befriedigen kann.
Die eigentlichen Philosophen aber sind Befehlende und Gesetzgeber: sie
sagen "so soll es sein!", sie bestimmen erst das Wohin? und Wozu? des
Menschen und verfügen dabei über die Vorarbeit aller philosophischen
Arbeiter, aller Überwältiger der Vergangenheit, - sie greifen mit
schöpferischer Hand nach der Zukunft, und Alles, was ist und war, wird
ihnen dabei zum Mittel, zum Werkzeug, zum Hammer. Ihr "Erkennen" ist
Schaffen, ihr Schaffen ist eine Gesetzgebung, ihr Wille zur Wahrheit
ist - Wille zur Macht. - Giebt es heute solche Philosophen? Gab es
schon solche Philosophen? Muss es nicht solche Philosophen geben?....


Es will mir immer mehr so scheinen, dass der Philosoph als ein
nothwendiger Mensch des Morgens und Übermorgens sich jederzeit mit
seinem Heute in Widerspruch befunden hat und befinden musste: sein
Feind war jedes Mal das Ideal von Heute. Bisher haben alle diese
ausserordentlichen Förderer des Menschen, welche man Philosophen
nennt, und die sich selbst selten als Freunde der Weisheit, sondern
eher als unangenehme Narren und gefährliche Fragezeichen fühlten -,
ihre Aufgabe, ihre harte, ungewollte, unabweisliche Aufgabe, endlich
aber die Grösse ihrer Aufgabe darin gefunden, das böse Gewissen ihrer
Zeit zu sein. Indem sie gerade den Tugenden der Zeit das Messer
vivisektorisch auf die Brust setzten, verriethen sie, was ihr eignes
Geheimniss war: um eine neue Grösse des Menschen zu wissen, um einen
neuen ungegangenen Weg zu seiner Vergrösserung. Jedes Mal deckten

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Text Comparison with Beyond Good and Evil

Page 10
In that the NEW psychologist is about to put an end to the superstitions which have hitherto flourished with almost tropical luxuriance around the idea of the soul, he is really, as it were, thrusting himself into a new desert and a new distrust--it is possible that the older psychologists had a merrier and more comfortable time of it; eventually, however, he finds that precisely thereby he is also condemned to INVENT--and, who knows? perhaps to DISCOVER the new.
Page 19
Page 27
So much must be conceded: there could have been no life at all except upon the basis of perspective estimates and semblances; and if, with the virtuous enthusiasm and stupidity of many philosophers, one wished to do away altogether with the "seeming world"--well, granted that YOU could do that,--at least nothing of your "truth" would thereby remain! Indeed, what is it that forces us in general to the supposition that there is an essential opposition of "true" and "false"? Is it not enough to suppose degrees of seemingness, and as it were lighter and darker shades and tones of semblance--different valeurs, as the painters say? Why might not the world WHICH CONCERNS US--be a fiction? And to any one who suggested: "But to a fiction belongs an originator?"--might it not be bluntly replied: WHY? May not.
Page 32
"My opinion is MY opinion: another person has not easily a right to it"--such a philosopher of the future will say, perhaps.
Page 59
Another, with a more refined thirst for possession, says to himself: "One may not deceive where one desires to possess"--he is irritated and impatient at the idea that a mask of him should rule in the hearts of.
Page 62
On the other hand, the gregarious European man nowadays assumes an air as if he were the only kind of man that is allowable, he glorifies his qualities, such as public spirit, kindness, deference, industry, temperance, modesty, indulgence, sympathy, by virtue of which he is gentle, endurable, and useful to the herd, as the peculiarly human virtues.
Page 64
There is a point of diseased mellowness and effeminacy in the history of society, at which society itself takes the part of him who injures it, the.
Page 68
I mean to say that one must have the right out of one's own EXPERIENCE--experience, as it seems to me, always implies unfortunate experience?--to treat of such an important question of rank, so as not to speak of colour like the blind, or AGAINST science like women and artists ("Ah! this dreadful science!" sigh their instinct and their shame, "it always FINDS THINGS OUT!").
Page 72
However gratefully one may welcome the OBJECTIVE spirit--and who has not been sick to death of all subjectivity and its confounded IPSISIMOSITY!--in the end, however, one must learn caution even with regard to one's gratitude, and put a stop to the exaggeration with which the unselfing and depersonalizing of the spirit has recently been celebrated, as if it were the goal in itself, as if it were salvation and glorification--as is especially accustomed to happen in the pessimist school, which has also in its turn good reasons for paying the highest honours to "disinterested knowledge" The objective man, who no longer curses and scolds like the pessimist, the IDEAL man of learning in whom the scientific instinct blossoms forth fully after a thousand complete and partial failures, is assuredly one of the most costly instruments that exist, but his place is in the hand of one who is more powerful He is only an instrument, we may say, he is a MIRROR--he is no "purpose in himself" The objective man is in truth a mirror accustomed to prostration before everything that wants to be known, with such desires only as knowing or "reflecting" implies--he waits until something comes, and then expands himself sensitively, so that even the light footsteps and gliding-past of spiritual beings may not be lost on his surface and film Whatever "personality" he still possesses seems to him accidental, arbitrary, or still oftener, disturbing, so much has he come to regard himself as the passage and reflection of outside forms and events He calls up the recollection of "himself" with an effort, and not infrequently wrongly, he readily confounds himself with other persons, he makes mistakes with regard to his own needs, and here only is he unrefined and negligent Perhaps he is troubled about the health, or the pettiness and confined atmosphere of wife and friend, or the lack of companions and society--indeed, he sets.
Page 75
and in truth he needs some consolation.
Page 79
I insist upon it that people finally cease confounding philosophical workers, and in general scientific men, with philosophers--that precisely here one should strictly give "each his own," and not give those far too much, these far too little.
Page 83
It is the music in our conscience, the dance in our spirit, to which Puritan litanies, moral sermons, and goody-goodness won't chime.
Page 90
I hope to be forgiven for discovering that all moral philosophy hitherto has been tedious and has belonged to the soporific appliances--and that "virtue," in my opinion, has been MORE injured by the TEDIOUSNESS of its advocates than by anything else; at the same time, however, I would not wish to overlook their general usefulness.
Page 95
Woman wishes to be independent, and therefore she begins to enlighten men about "woman as she is"--THIS is one of the worst developments of the general UGLIFYING of Europe.
Page 98
The weaker sex has in no previous age been treated with so much respect by men as at present--this belongs to the tendency and fundamental taste of democracy, in the same way as disrespectfulness to old age--what wonder is it that abuse should be immediately made of this respect? They want more, they learn to make claims, the tribute of respect is at last felt to be well-nigh galling; rivalry for rights, indeed actual strife itself, would be preferred: in a word, woman is losing modesty.
Page 102
Whether we call it "civilization," or "humanising," or "progress," which now distinguishes the European, whether we call it simply, without praise or blame, by the political formula the DEMOCRATIC movement in Europe--behind all the moral and political foregrounds pointed to by such formulas, an immense PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS goes on, which is ever extending the process of the assimilation of Europeans, their increasing detachment from the conditions under which, climatically and hereditarily, united races originate, their increasing independence of every definite milieu, that for centuries would fain inscribe itself with equal demands on soul and body,--that is to say, the slow emergence of an essentially SUPER-NATIONAL and nomadic species of man, who possesses, physiologically speaking, a maximum of the art and.
Page 103
For, while the capacity for adaptation, which is every day trying changing conditions, and begins a new work with every generation, almost with every decade, makes the POWERFULNESS of the type impossible; while the collective impression of such future Europeans will probably be that of numerous, talkative, weak-willed, and very handy workmen who REQUIRE a master, a commander, as they require their daily bread; while, therefore, the democratising of Europe will tend to the production of a type prepared for SLAVERY in the most subtle sense of the term: the STRONG man will necessarily in individual and exceptional cases, become stronger and richer than he has perhaps ever been before--owing to the unprejudicedness of his schooling, owing to the immense variety of practice, art, and disguise.
Page 106
This whole music of Romanticism, besides, was not noble enough, was not musical enough, to maintain its position anywhere but in the theatre and before the masses; from the beginning it was second-rate music, which was little thought of by genuine musicians.
Page 126
Page 130
The manifold torment of the psychologist who has discovered this ruination, who discovers once, and then discovers ALMOST repeatedly throughout all history, this universal inner "desperateness" of higher men, this eternal "too late!" in every sense--may perhaps one day be the cause of his turning with bitterness against his own lot, and of his making an attempt at self-destruction--of his "going to ruin" himself.