Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 57

um
Gotteswillen - denn in der Religion haben die Leidenschaften wieder
Bürgerrecht, vorausgesetzt dass; zuletzt selbst jene entgegenkommende
und muthwillige Hingebung an die Affekte, wie sie Hafis und Goethe
gelehrt haben, jenes kühne Fallen-lassen der Zügel, jene geistig-
leibliche licentia morum in dem Ausnahmefalle alter weiser Käuze und
Trunkenbolde, bei denen es "wenig Gefahr mehr hat". Auch Dies zum
Kapitel "Moral als Furchtsamkeit".


199.

Insofern es zu allen Zeiten, so lange es Menschen giebt, auch
Menschenheerden gegeben hat (Geschlechts-Verbände, Gemeinden,
Stämme, Völker, Staaten, Kirchen) und immer sehr viel Gehorchende im
Verhältniss zu der kleinen Zahl Befehlender, - in Anbetracht also,
dass Gehorsam bisher am besten und längsten unter Menschen geübt
und gezüchtet worden ist, darf man billig voraussetzen, dass
durchschnittlich jetzt einem jeden das Bedürfniss darnach angeboren
ist, als eine Art formalen Gewissens, welches gebietet: "du sollst
irgend Etwas unbedingt thun, irgend Etwas unbedingt lassen", kurz "du
sollst". Dies Bedürfniss sucht sich zu sättigen und seine Form mit
einem Inhalte zu füllen; es greift dabei, gemäss seiner Stärke,
Ungeduld und Spannung, wenig wählerisch, als ein grober Appetit, zu
und nimmt an, was ihm nur von irgend welchen Befehlenden - Eltern,
Lehrern, Gesetzen, Standesvorurtheilen, öffentlichen Meinungen -
in's Ohr gerufen wird. Die seltsame Beschränktheit der menschlichen
Entwicklung, das Zögernde, Langwierige, oft Zurücklaufende und
Sich-Drehende derselben beruht darauf, dass der Heerden-Instinkt des
Gehorsams am besten und auf Kosten der Kunst des Befehlens vererbt
wird. Denkt man sich diesen Instinkt einmal bis zu seinen letzten
Ausschweifungen schreitend, so fehlen endlich geradezu die
Befehlshaber und Unabhängigen; oder sie leiden innerlich am
schlechten Gewissen und haben nöthig, sich selbst erst eine Täuschung
vorzumachen, um befehlen zu können: nämlich als ob auch sie nur
gehorchten. Dieser Zustand besteht heute thatsächlich in Europa: ich
nenne ihn die moralische Heuchelei der Befehlenden. Sie wissen sich
nicht anders vor ihrem schlechten Gewissen zu schützen als dadurch,
dass sie sich als Ausführer älterer oder höherer Befehle gebärden (der
Vorfahren, der Verfassung, des Rechts, der Gesetze oder gar Gottes)
oder selbst von der Heerden-Denkweise her sich Heerden-Maximen borgen,
zum Beispiel als "erste Diener ihres Volks" oder als "Werkzeuge
des gemeinen Wohls". Auf der anderen Seite giebt sich heute der
Heerdenmensch in Europa das Ansehn, als sei er die einzig erlaubte
Art Mensch, und verherrlicht seine Eigenschaften, vermöge deren er
zahm, verträglich und der Heerde nützlich ist, als die eigentlich
menschlichen Tugenden: also Gemeinsinn, Wohlwollen, Rücksicht, Fleiss,
Mässigkeit, Bescheidenheit, Nachsicht, Mitleiden. Für die Fälle aber,
wo man der Führer und Leithammel nicht entrathen zu können glaubt,
macht man heute Versuche über Versuche, durch Zusammen-Addiren kluger
Heerdenmenschen die Befehlshaber zu ersetzen: dieses Ursprungs sind
zum Beispiel alle repräsentativen Verfassungen. Welche Wohlthat,
welche Erlösung von einem unerträglich werdenden Druck trotz
Alledem das Erscheinen eines

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Text Comparison with The Joyful Wisdom Complete Works, Volume Ten

Page 13
_Foot Writing.
Page 27
_--The lust of property, and love: what different associations each of these ideas evoke!--and yet it might be the same impulse twice named: on the one occasion disparaged from the standpoint of those already possessing (in whom the impulse has attained something of repose,--who are now apprehensive for the safety of their "possession"); on the other occasion viewed from the standpoint of the unsatisfied and thirsty, and therefore glorified as "good.
Page 49
_--When I think of the desire to do something, how it continually tickles and stimulates millions of young Europeans, who cannot endure themselves and all their ennui,--I conceive that there must be a desire in them to suffer something, in order to derive from their suffering a worthy motive for acting, for doing something.
Page 57
--On the other hand, a vulgar turn in northern works, for example in German music, offends me unutterably.
Page 69
With him.
Page 73
And not only is he allured thereto by the whole mystic pomp of this philosophy (which would also have allured a Cagliostro), the peculiar airs and emotions of the philosopher have all along been seducing him as well! For example, Wagner's indignation about the corruption of the German language is Schopenhauerian; and if one should commend his imitation in this respect, it is nevertheless not to be denied that Wagner's style itself suffers in no small degree from all the tumours and turgidities, the sight of which made Schopenhauer so furious; and that, in respect to the German-writing Wagnerians, Wagneromania is beginning to be as dangerous as only some kinds of Hegelomania have been.
Page 81
Let us be on our guard against saying that death is contrary to life.
Page 111
281.
Page 135
334.
Page 137
In this connection I recollect old Kant, who, as a punishment for having _gained possession surreptitiously_ of the "thing in itself"--also a very ludicrous affair!--was imposed upon by the categorical imperative, and with that in his heart _strayed back again_ to "God," the "soul," "freedom," and "immortality," like a fox which strays back into its cage: and it had been _his_ strength and shrewdness which had _broken open_ this cage!--What? You admire the categorical imperative in you? This "persistency" of your so-called moral judgment? This absoluteness of the feeling that "as I think on this matter, so must everyone think"? Admire rather your _selfishness_ therein! And the blindness, paltriness, and modesty of your selfishness! For it is selfishness in a person to regard _his_ judgment as universal law, and a blind, paltry and modest selfishness besides, because it betrays that you have not yet discovered yourself, that you have not yet created for yourself any personal, quite personal ideal:--for this could never be the ideal of another, to say nothing of all, of every one!--He who still thinks that "each would have to act in this manner in this case," has not yet advanced half a dozen paces in self-knowledge: otherwise he would know that there neither are, nor can be, similar actions,--that every action that has been done, has been done in an entirely unique and inimitable manner, and that it will be the same with regard to all future actions; that all precepts of conduct (and even the most esoteric and subtle precepts of all moralities up to the present), apply only to the coarse exterior,--that by means of them, indeed, a semblance of equality can be attained, _but only a semblance,_--that in outlook and retrospect, _every_ action is, and remains, an impenetrable affair, --that our opinions of the "good," "noble" and "great" can never be proved by our actions, because no action is cognisable,--that our opinions, estimates, and tables of values are certainly among the most powerful levers in the mechanism of our actions, that in every single case, nevertheless, the law of their mechanism is untraceable.
Page 150
Even the readiness with which our cleverest contemporaries get lost in wretched corners and alleys, for example, in Vaterländerei (so I designate Jingoism, called _chauvinisme_ in France, and "_deutsch_" in Germany), or in petty æsthetic creeds in the manner of Parisian _naturalisme_ (which only brings into prominence and uncovers--_that_ aspect of nature which excites simultaneously disgust and astonishment--they like at present to call this aspect _la vérité vraie_, or in Nihilism in the St Petersburg style (that is to say, in the _belief in unbelief,_ even to martyrdom for it):--this shows always and above all the need of belief, support, backbone, and buttress.
Page 151
For in fact fanaticism is the sole "volitional strength" to which the weak and irresolute can be excited, as a sort of hypnotising of the entire sensory-intellectual system, in favour of the over-abundant nutrition (hypertrophy) of a particular point of view and a particular sentiment, which then dominates--the Christian calls it his _faith.
Page 157
In short, the development of speech and the development of consciousness (not of reason, but of reason becoming self-conscious) go hand in hand.
Page 158
.
Page 171
" Napoleon, who saw in modern ideas, and accordingly in civilisation, something like a personal enemy, has by this hostility proved himself one of the greatest continuators of the Renaissance: he has brought to the surface a whole block of the ancient character, the decisive block perhaps, the block of granite.
Page 175
367.
Page 176
We leave ourselves at home when we go to the theatre; we there renounce the right to our own tongue and choice, to our taste, and even to our courage as we possess it and practise it within our own four walls in relation to God and man.
Page 183
" This is not the expression of exhaustion,--but rather that of a certain autumnal sunniness and mildness, which the work itself, the maturing of the work, always leaves behind in its originator.
Page 190
"We cannot endure it any longer," they shout to me, "away, away with this raven-black music.
Page 198
New things on new the world unfolds me, Time, space with noonday die: Alone thy monstrous eye beholds me, Awful Infinity! SILS-MARIA.