Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 42

Gesammt-Abrechnung gehören
die bisherigen, nämlich souveränen Religionen zu den Hauptursachen,
welche den Typus "Mensch" auf einer niedrigeren Stufe festhielten,
- sie erhielten zu viel von dem, was zu Grunde gehn sollte. Man hat
ihnen Unschätzbares zu danken; und wer ist reich genug an Dankbarkeit,
um nicht vor alle dem arm zu werden, was zum Beispiel die "geistlichen
Menschen" des Christenthums bisher für Europa gethan haben! Und doch,
wenn sie den Leidenden Trost, den Unterdrückten und Verzweifelnden
Muth, den Unselbständigen einen Stab und Halt gaben und die
Innerlich-Zerstörten und Wild-Gewordenen von der Gesellschaft weg in
Klöster und seelische Zuchthäuser lockten: was mussten sie ausserdem
thun, um mit gutem Gewissen dergestalt grundsätzlich an der Erhaltung
alles Kranken und Leidenden, das heisst in That und Wahrheit an
der Verschlechterung der europäischen Rasse zu arbeiten? Alle
Werthschätzungen auf den Kopf stellen - das mussten sie! Und die
Starken zerbrechen, die grossen Hoffnungen ankränkeln, das Glück
in der Schönheit verdächtigen, alles Selbstherrliche, Männliche,
Erobernde, Herrschsüchtige, alle Instinkte, welche dem höchsten und
wohlgerathensten Typus "Mensch" zu eigen sind, in Unsicherheit,
Gewissens-Noth, Selbstzerstörung umknicken, ja die ganze Liebe zum
Irdischen und zur Herrschaft über die Erde in Hass gegen die Erde
und das Irdische verkehren - das stellte sich die Kirche zur
Aufgabe und musste es sich stellen, bis für ihre Schätzung endlich
"Entweltlichung", "Entsinnlichung" und "höherer Mensch" in Ein
Gefühl zusammenschmolzen. Gesetzt, dass man mit dem spöttischen
und unbetheiligten Auge eines epikurischen Gottes die wunderlich
schmerzliche und ebenso grobe wie feine Komödie des europäischen
Christenthums zu überschauen vermöchte, ich glaube, man fände kein
Ende mehr zu staunen und zu lachen: scheint es denn nicht, dass Ein
Wille über Europa durch achtzehn Jahrhunderte geherrscht hat, aus dem
Menschen eine sublime Missgeburt zu machen? Wer aber mit umgekehrten
Bedürfnissen, nicht epikurisch mehr, sondern mit irgend einem
göttlichen Hammer in der Hand auf diese fast willkürliche Entartung
und Verkümmerung des Menschen zuträte, wie sie der christliche
Europäer ist (Pascal zum Beispiel), müsste er da nicht mit Grimm, mit
Mitleid, mit Entsetzen schreien: "Oh ihr Tölpel, ihr anmaassenden
mitleidigen Tölpel, was habt ihr da gemacht! War das eine Arbeit
für eure Hände! Wie habt ihr mir meinen schönsten Stein verhauen
und verhunzt! Was nahmt ihr euch heraus!" - Ich wollte sagen:
das Christenthum war bisher die verhängnissvollste Art von
Selbst-Überhebung. Menschen, nicht hoch und hart genug, um am
Menschen als Künstler gestalten zu dürfen; Menschen, nicht stark und
fernsichtig genug, um, mit einer erhabenen Selbst-Bezwingung, das
Vordergrund-Gesetz des tausendfältigen Missrathens und Zugrundegehns
walten zu lassen; Menschen, nicht vornehm genug, um die abgründlich
verschiedene Rangordnung und Rangkluft zwischen Mensch und Mensch zu
sehen: - solche Menschen haben, mit ihrem "Gleich vor Gott", bisher
über dem Schicksale Europa's gewaltet,

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 2
Frivolous spendthrift! Thou art a reader after my own heart; for thou wilt be patient enough to accompany an author any distance, even though he himself cannot yet see the goal at which he is aiming,--even though he himself feels only that he must at all events honestly believe in a goal, in order that a future and possibly very remote generation may come face to face with that towards which we are now blindly and instinctively groping.
Page 6
" "Brighter now glow'd his cheek, and still more bright With that unchanging, ever youthful glow:-- That courage which o'ercomes, in hard-fought fight, Sooner or later ev'ry earthly foe,-- That faith which soaring to the realms of light, Now boldly presseth on, now bendeth low, So that the good may work, wax, thrive amain, So that the day the noble may attain.
Page 13
? Thirdly, with regard to the question of duelling, we each have our own opinions, and do not require to be waylaid and surprised by the sort of instruction you may feel disposed to give us.
Page 14
But we were silent, for we wished above all to keep our secret.
Page 16
Did you observe how quiet they were a moment ago, when we were contemplating the sun? They neither spoke nor smoked, they stood stone still, I even believe they meditated.
Page 23
For at present the exploitation of a man for the purpose of science is accepted everywhere without the slightest scruple.
Page 25
If these feelings are never quite honestly expressed, however, it is owing to a sad want of spirit among modern pedagogues.
Page 31
Here a pompous form of diction is taught in an age when every spoken or written word is a piece of barbarism.
Page 44
" "You astonish me with such a metaphysics of genius," said the teacher's companion, "and I have only a hazy conception of the accuracy of your similitude.
Page 47
A sudden thought strikes him: why is he a skilled philologist at all! Why did these authors write Latin and Greek! And with a light heart he immediately begins to etymologise with Homer, calling Lithuanian or Ecclesiastical Slavonic, or, above all, the sacred Sanskrit, to his assistance: as if Greek lessons were merely the excuse for a general introduction to the study of languages, and as if Homer were lacking in only one respect, namely, not being written in pre-Indogermanic.
Page 49
This right to higher education has been taken so seriously by the most powerful of modern States--Prussia--that the objectionable principle it has adopted, taken in connection with the well-known daring and hardihood of this State, is seen to have a menacing and dangerous consequence for the true German spirit; for we see endeavours.
Page 50
" "But," said the philosopher's companion, "what purposes can the State have in view with such a strange aim? For that it has some State objects in view is seen in the manner in which the conditions of Prussian schools are admired by, meditated upon, and occasionally imitated by other States.
Page 60
Who would dare to be so bold as to join in it?" At this point the philosopher's companion again turned to him and said: "Don't be angry with me when I tell you that I too have a somewhat similar feeling, which I have not mentioned to you before.
Page 61
" We kept on arguing in this fashion, speaking without any great ability and not putting our thoughts in any special form: but the philosopher's companion went even further, and said to him: "Just think of all these great geniuses of whom we are wont to be so proud, looking upon them as tried and true leaders and guides of this real German spirit, whose names we commemorate by statues and festivals, and whose works we hold up with feelings of pride for the admiration of foreign lands--how did they.
Page 67
I have no doubt, either, that they took the first bold steps in the wonderful and stirring times of the Reformation, and that afterwards, in the era which gave birth to Schiller and Goethe, there was again a growing demand for culture, like the first protuberance of that wing spoken of by Plato in the _Phaedrus_, which, at every contact with the beautiful, bears the soul aloft into the upper regions, the habitations of the gods.
Page 69
men are wont, to be, something that you young men nowadays look upon as old-fashioned.
Page 71
"What's your objection to students?" we demanded; but there was no answer.
Page 78
He now seeks consolation in hasty and incessant action so as to hide himself from himself.
Page 82
It endeavours either to bring the leaders down to the level of its own servitude or else to cast them out altogether.
Page 83
" [From a few MS.