Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 23

aus ihren Folgen abgeleitet: die Handlung an sich kam dabei
ebensowenig als ihre Herkunft in Betracht, sondern ungefähr so, wie
heute noch in China eine Auszeichnung oder Schande vom Kinde auf die
Eltern zurückgreift, so war es die rückwirkende Kraft des Erfolgs oder
Misserfolgs, welche den Menschen anleitete, gut oder schlecht von
einer Handlung zu denken. Nennen wir diese Periode die vormoralische
Periode der Menschheit: der Imperativ "erkenne dich selbst!" war
damals noch unbekannt. In den letzten zehn Jahrtausenden ist man
hingegen auf einigen grossen Flächen der Erde Schritt für Schritt
so weit gekommen, nicht mehr die Folgen, sondern die Herkunft der
Handlung über ihren Werth entscheiden zu lassen: ein grosses Ereigniss
als Ganzes, eine erhebliche Verfeinerung des Blicks und Maassstabs,
die unbewusste Nachwirkung von der Herrschaft aristokratischer Werthe
und des Glaubens an "Herkunft", das Abzeichen einer Periode, welche
man im engeren Sinne als die moralische bezeichnen darf: der erste
Versuch zur Selbst-Erkenntniss ist damit gemacht. Statt der Folgen die
Herkunft: welche Umkehrung der Perspektive! Und sicherlich eine erst
nach langen Kämpfen und Schwankungen erreichte Umkehrung! Freilich:
ein verhängnissvoller neuer Aberglaube, eine eigenthümliche Engigkeit
der Interpretation kam eben damit zur Herrschaft: man interpretirte
die Herkunft einer Handlung im allerbestimmtesten Sinne als Herkunft
aus einer Absicht; man wurde Eins im Glauben daran, dass der Werth
einer Handlung im Werthe ihrer Absicht belegen sei. Die Absicht als
die ganze Herkunft und Vorgeschichte einer Handlung: unter diesem
Vorurtheile ist fast bis auf die neueste Zeit auf Erden moralisch
gelobt, getadelt, gerichtet, auch philosophirt worden. - Sollten wir
aber heute nicht bei der Nothwendigkeit angelangt sein, uns nochmals
über eine Umkehrung und Grundverschiebung der Werthe schlüssig zu
machen, Dank einer nochmaligen Selbstbesinnung und Vertiefung des
Menschen, - sollten wir nicht an der Schwelle einer Periode stehen,
welche, negativ, zunächst als die aussermoralische zu, bezeichnen
wäre: heute, wo wenigstens unter uns Immoralisten der Verdacht sich
regt, dass gerade in dem, was nicht-absichtlich an einer Handlung
ist, ihr entscheidender Werth belegen sei, und dass alle ihre
Absichtlichkeit, Alles, was von ihr gesehn, gewusst, "bewusst" werden
kann, noch zu ihrer Oberfläche und Haut gehöre, - welche, wie jede
Haut, Etwas verräth, aber noch mehr verbirgt? Kurz, wir glauben, dass
die Absicht nur ein Zeichen und Symptom ist, das erst der Auslegung
bedarf, dazu ein Zeichen, das zu Vielerlei und folglich für sich
allein fast nichts bedeutet, - dass Moral, im bisherigen Sinne, also
Absichten-Moral ein Vorurtheil gewesen ist, eine Voreiligkeit, eine
Vorläufigkeit vielleicht, ein Ding etwa vom Range der Astrologie und
Alchymie, aber jedenfalls Etwas, das überwunden werden muss. Die
Überwindung der Moral, in einem gewissen Verstande sogar die
Selbstüberwindung der Moral: mag das der Name für jene lange
geheime Arbeit sein,

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Text Comparison with Beyond Good and Evil

Page 9
Page 10
One must, however, go still further, and also declare war, relentless war to the knife, against the "atomistic requirements" which still lead a dangerous after-life in places where no one suspects them, like the more celebrated "metaphysical requirements": one must also above all give the finishing stroke to that other and more portentous atomism which Christianity has taught best and longest, the SOUL-ATOMISM.
Page 12
organs! It seems to me that this is a complete REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM, if the conception CAUSA SUI is something fundamentally absurd.
Page 13
It seems that the hundred-times-refuted theory of the "free will" owes its persistence to this charm alone; some one is always appearing who feels himself strong enough to refute it.
Page 28
this "belong" also belong to the fiction? Is it not at length permitted to be a little ironical towards the subject, just as towards the predicate and object? Might not the philosopher elevate himself above faith in grammar? All respect to governesses, but is it not time that philosophy should renounce governess-faith? 35.
Page 33
Having been at home, or at least guests, in many realms of the spirit, having escaped again and again from the gloomy, agreeable nooks in which preferences and prejudices, youth, origin, the accident of men and books, or even the weariness of travel seemed to confine us, full of malice against the seductions of dependency which he concealed in honours, money, positions, or exaltation of the senses, grateful even for distress and the vicissitudes of illness, because they always free us from some rule, and its "prejudice," grateful to the God, devil, sheep, and worm in us, inquisitive to a fault, investigators to the point of cruelty, with unhesitating fingers for the intangible, with teeth and stomachs for the most indigestible, ready for any business that requires sagacity and acute senses, ready for every adventure, owing to an excess of "free will", with anterior and posterior souls, into the ultimate intentions of which it is difficult to pry, with foregrounds and backgrounds to the end of which no foot may run, hidden ones under the mantles of light, appropriators, although we resemble heirs and.
Page 34
In order, for instance, to divine and determine what sort of history the problem of KNOWLEDGE AND CONSCIENCE has hitherto had in the souls of homines religiosi, a person would perhaps himself have to possess as profound, as bruised, as immense an experience as the intellectual conscience of Pascal; and then he would still require that wide-spread heaven of clear, wicked spirituality, which, from above, would be able to oversee, arrange, and effectively formulize this mass of dangerous and painful experiences.
Page 41
They feel themselves already fully occupied, these good people, be it by their business or by their pleasures, not to mention the "Fatherland," and the newspapers, and their "family duties"; it seems that they have no time whatever left for religion; and above all, it is not obvious to them whether it is a question of a new business or a new pleasure--for it is impossible, they say to themselves, that people should go to church merely to spoil their tempers.
Page 48
"What! She is modest enough to love even you? Or stupid enough? Or--or---" 103.
Page 52
One ought to avow with the utmost fairness WHAT is still necessary here for a long time, WHAT is alone proper for the present: namely, the collection of material, the comprehensive survey and classification of an immense domain of delicate sentiments of worth, and distinctions of worth, which live, grow, propagate, and perish--and perhaps attempts to give a clear idea of the recurring and more common forms of these living crystallizations--as preparation for a THEORY OF TYPES of morality.
Page 70
Or he gets aloft too late, when the best of his maturity and strength is past, or when he is impaired, coarsened, and deteriorated, so that his view, his general estimate of things, is no longer of much importance.
Page 76
That unscrupulous enthusiast for big, handsome grenadiers (who, as King of Prussia, brought into being a military and skeptical genius--and therewith, in reality, the new and now triumphantly emerged type of German), the problematic, crazy father of Frederick the Great, had on one point the very knack and lucky grasp of the genius: he knew what was then lacking in Germany, the want of which was a hundred times more alarming and serious than any lack of culture and social form--his ill-will to the young Frederick resulted from the anxiety of a profound instinct.
Page 95
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realises itself with terrible obviousness: WOMAN RETROGRADES.
Page 102
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Page 128
At the risk of displeasing innocent ears, I submit that egoism belongs to the essence of a noble soul, I mean the unalterable belief that to a being such as "we," other beings must naturally be in subjection, and have to sacrifice themselves.
Page 130
The more a psychologist--a born, an unavoidable psychologist and soul-diviner--turns his attention to the more select cases and individuals, the greater is his danger of being suffocated by sympathy: he NEEDS sternness and cheerfulness more than any other man.
Page 133
--In the domain of genius, may not the "Raphael without hands" (taking the expression in its widest sense) perhaps not be the exception, but the rule?--Perhaps genius is by no means so rare: but rather the five hundred HANDS which it requires in order to tyrannize over the [GREEK INSERTED HERE], "the right time"--in order to take chance by the forelock! 275.
Page 136
" [FOOTNOTE: Goethe's "Faust," Part II, Act V.