Jenseits von Gut und Böse

By Friedrich Nietzsche

Page 2

eigentlich "zur Wahrheit"? - In der that, wir machten
langen Halt vor der Frage nach der Ursache dieses Willens, - bis
wir, zuletzt, vor einer noch gründlicheren Frage ganz und gar stehen
blieben. Wir fragten nach dem Werthe dieses Willens. Gesetzt, wir
wollen Wahrheit: warum nicht lieber Unwahrheit? Und Ungewissheit?
Selbst Unwissenheit? - Das Problem vom Werthe der Wahrheit trat vor
uns hin, - oder waren wir's, die vor das Problem hin traten? Wer von
uns ist hier Oedipus? Wer Sphinx? Es ist ein Stelldichein, wie es
scheint, von Fragen und Fragezeichen. - Und sollte man's glauben, dass
es uns schliesslich bedünken will, als sei das Problem noch nie bisher
gestellt, - als sei es von uns zum ersten Male gesehn, in's Auge
gefasst, gewagt? Denn es ist ein Wagnis dabei, und vielleicht giebt es
kein grösseres.


2.

"Wie könnte Etwas aus seinem Gegensatz entstehn? Zum Beispiel die
Wahrheit aus dem Irrthume? Oder der Wille zur Wahrheit aus dem Willen
zur Täuschung? Oder die selbstlose Handlung aus dem Eigennutze? Oder
das reine sonnenhafte Schauen des Weisen aus der Begehrlichkeit?
Solcherlei Entstehung ist unmöglich; wer davon träumt, ein Narr, ja
Schlimmeres; die Dinge höchsten Werthes müssen einen anderen, eigenen
Ursprung haben, - aus dieser vergänglichen verführerischen täuschenden
geringen Welt, aus diesem Wirrsal von Wahn und Begierde sind sie
unableitbar! Vielmehr im Schoosse des Sein's, im Unvergänglichen,
im verborgenen Gotte, im `Ding an sich` - da muss ihr Grund liegen,
und sonst nirgendswo!" - Diese Art zu urtheilen macht das typische
Vorurtheil aus, an dem sich die Metaphysiker aller Zeiten wieder
erkennen lassen; diese Art von Werthschätzungen steht im Hintergrunde
aller ihrer logischen Prozeduren; aus diesem ihrem "Glauben" heraus
bemühn sie sich um ihr "Wissen", um Etwas, das feierlich am Ende als
"die Wahrheit" getauft wird. Der Grundglaube der Metaphysiker ist der
Glaube an die Gegensätze der Werthe. Es ist auch den Vorsichtigsten
unter ihnen nicht eingefallen, hier an der Schwelle bereits zu
zweifeln, wo es doch am nöthigsten war: selbst wenn sie sich gelobt
hatten "de omnibus dubitandum". Man darf nämlich zweifeln, erstens, ob
es Gegensätze überhaupt giebt, und zweitens, ob jene volksthümlichen
Werthschätzungen und Werth-Gegensätze, auf welche die Metaphysiker ihr
Siegel gedrückt haben, nicht vielleicht nur Vordergrunds-Schätzungen
sind, nur vorläufige Perspektiven, vielleicht noch dazu aus einem
Winkel heraus, vielleicht von Unten hinauf, Frosch-Perspektiven
gleichsam, um einen Ausdruck zu borgen, der den Malern geläufig ist?
Bei allem Werthe, der dem Wahren, dem Wahrhaftigen, dem Selbstlosen
zukommen mag: es wäre möglich, dass dem Scheine, dem Willen zur
Täuschung, dem Eigennutz und der Begierde ein für alles Leben höherer
und grundsätzlicherer Werth zugeschrieben werden müsste. Es wäre sogar
noch möglich, dass was den Werth jener guten und

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Text Comparison with On the Future of our Educational Institutions

Page 0
| | | | Greek has been transliterated and marked +like so+.
Page 9
I and my friend had many reminiscences in common, and these dated from the period of our boyhood upwards.
Page 10
Arrayed in the bright fantastic garb in which, amid the gloomy fashions now reigning, students alone may indulge, we boarded a steamer which was gaily decorated in our honour, and hoisted our flag on its mast.
Page 14
" This explanation only succeeded in perturbing us the more; for we saw a danger threatening us which was even greater than the loss of our shooting-range, and we asked eagerly, "Where is this quiet spot? Surely not to the left here, in the wood?" "That is the very place.
Page 18
Suddenly I became aware that I was listening, that I was eavesdropping, and was passionately interested, with both ears keenly alive to every sound.
Page 20
It seemed to me that I must recognise two main directions in the forces at work--two seemingly antagonistic tendencies, equally deleterious in their action, and ultimately combining to produce their results: a striving to achieve the greatest possible _expansion_ of education on the one hand, and a tendency to _minimise and weaken_ it on the other.
Page 32
' And he who regards 'scientific education' as the object of a public school thereby sacrifices 'classical education' and the so-called 'formal education,' at one stroke, as the scientific man and the cultured man belong to two different spheres which, though coming together at times in the same individual, are never reconciled.
Page 35
There is, however, no such thing as a classical education that could grow without this inferred love of form.
Page 38
At the most, owing to their scholarly mannerisms and display of knowledge, he will be reminded of the fact that in Latin countries it is the artistically-trained man, and that in Germany it is the abortive scholar, who becomes a journalist.
Page 39
Not, however, before the noblest needs of genuine German genius snatch at the hand of this genius of Greece as at a firm post in the torrent of barbarity, not before a devouring yearning for this genius of Greece takes possession of German genius, and not before that view of the Greek home, on which Schiller and Goethe, after enormous exertions, were able to feast their eyes, has become the Mecca of the best and most gifted men, will the aim of classical education in public schools acquire any definition; and they at least will not be to blame who teach ever so little science and learning in public schools, in order to keep a definite and at the same time ideal aim in their eyes, and to rescue their pupils from that glistening phantom which now allows itself to be called 'culture' and 'education.
Page 43
"I have long accustomed myself to look with caution upon those who are ardent in the cause of the so-called 'education of the people' in the common meaning of the phrase; since for the most part they desire for themselves, consciously or unconsciously, absolutely unlimited freedom, which must inevitably degenerate into something resembling the saturnalia of barbaric times, and which the sacred hierarchy of nature will never grant them.
Page 48
The public schools may still be seats of learning: not, however of _the_ learning which, as it were, is only the natural and involuntary auxiliary of a culture that is directed towards the noblest ends; but rather of that culture which might be compared to the hypertrophical swelling of an unhealthy body.
Page 53
In other words we have now come to a turning, and it would be advisable for us to take a short glance backwards to see what we think we have gained from such a varied conversation.
Page 54
In this instinct also we may see a longing for immortality: wealth and power, wisdom, presence of mind, eloquence, a flourishing outward aspect, a renowned name--all these are merely turned into the means by which an insatiable, personal will to live craves for new life, with which, again, it hankers after an eternity that is at last seen to be illusory.
Page 58
In a word, he ran away.
Page 59
And if you are to understand everything you must not go away just yet; we want to ask you about so many things that lie heavily on our hearts.
Page 63
Who can tell to what these heroic men were destined to attain if only that true German spirit had gathered them together within the protecting walls of a powerful institution?--that spirit which, without the help of some such institution, drags out an isolated, debased, and degraded existence.
Page 65
They arose perhaps from the instinctive anxiety to know whether, if the philosopher's views were carried into effect, our own personalities would find a place in the higher or lower division; and this made it necessary for us to find some arguments against the mode of thinking which robbed us of our self-styled claims to culture.
Page 77
"In what relationship these universities stand to _art_ cannot be acknowledged without shame: in none at all.
Page 84
The reader will remember that these lectures were delivered when Nietzsche was only in his twenty-eighth year.